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  *FM 3-97.61 (TC 90-6-1)
Field Manual
No. 3-97.61
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 26 August 2002

 

FM 3-97.61

MILITARY MOUNTAINEERING

 

Table of Contents


COVER  
PREFACE  
CHAPTER 1. MOUNTAIN TERRAIN, WEATHER, AND HAZARDS
Section I. Mountain Terrain
1-1. Definition
1-2. Composition
1-3. Rock and Slope Types
1-4. Rock Classifications
1-5. Mountain Building
1-6. Route Classification
1-7. Cross-Country Movement
1-8. Cover and Concealment
1-9. Observation
1-10. Fields of Fire
Section II. Mountain Weather
1-11. Considerations for Planning
1-12. Mountain Air
1-13. Weather Characteristics
1-14. Wind
1-15. Humidity
1-16. Cloud Formation
1-17. Types of Clouds
1-18. Fronts
1-19. Temperature
1-20. Weather Forecasting
1-21. Recording Data
Section III. Mountain Hazards
1-22. Subjective Hazards
1-23. Objective Hazards
1-24. Weather Hazards
1-25. Avalanche Hazards
CHAPTER 2. MOUNTAIN LIVING
Section I. Survival
2-1. Water Supply
2-2. Nutrition
2-3. Personal Hygiene and Sanitation
Section II. Acclimatization and Conditioning
2-4. Symptoms and Adjustments
2-5. Physical and Psychological Conditioning
Section III. Medical Considerations
2-6. Illness and Injury
2-7. Treatment and Evacuation
2-8. Solar Injuries
2-9. Cold-Weather Injuries
2-10. Heat Injuries
2-11. Acute Mountain Sickness
2-12. Chronic Mountain Sickness
2-13. Understanding High-Altitude Illnesses
2-14. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
2-15. High-Altitude Cerebral Edema
2-16. Hydration in HAPE and HACE
CHAPTER 3. MOUNTAINEERING EQUIPMENT
Section I. Equipment Description and Maintenance
3-1. Footwear
3-2. Clothing
3-3. Climbing Software
3-4. Climbing Hardware
3-5. Snow and Ice Climbing Hardware
3-6. Sustainability Equipment
Section II. Equipment Packing
3-7. Choice of Equipment
3-8. Tips on Packing
CHAPTER 4. ROPE MANAGEMENT AND KNOTS
Section I. Preparation, Care and Maintenance, Inspection, Terminology
4-1. Preparation
4-2. Care and Maintenance
4-3. Inspection
4-4. Terminology
Section II. Coiling, Carrying, Throwing
4-5. Coiling and Carrying the Rope
4-6. Throwing the Rope
Section III. Knots
4-7. Square Knot
4-8. Fisherman's Knot
4-9. Double Fisherman's Knot
4-10. Figure-Eight Bend
4-11 Water Knot
4-12. Bowline
4-13. Round Turn and Two Half Hitches
4-14. Figure-Eight Retrace (Rerouted Figure-Eight)
4-15. Clove Hitch
4-16. Wireman's Knot
4-17. Directional Figure-Eight
4-18. Bowline-on-a-Bight (Two-Loop Bowline)
4-19. Two-Loop Figure-Eight
4-20. Figure-Eight Loop (Figure-Eight-on-a-Bight)
4-21. Prusik Knot
4-22. Bachman Knot
4-23. Bowline-on-a-Coil
4-24. Three-Loop Bowline
4-25. Figure-Eight Slip Knot
4-26. Transport Knot (Overhand Slip Knot/Mule Knot)
4-27. Kleimhiest Knot
4-28. Frost Knot
4-29. Girth Hitch
4-30. Munter Hitch
4-31. Rappel Seat
4-32. Guarde Knot
CHAPTER 5. ANCHORS
Section I. Natural Anchors
5-1. Trees
5-2. Boulders
5-3. Chockstones
5-4. Rock Projections
5-5. Tunnels and Arches
5-6. Bushes and Shrubs
5-7. Slinging Techniques
Section II. Anchoring With the Rope
5-8. Rope Anchor
5-9. Tensionless Anchor
Section III. Artificial Anchors
5-10. Deadman
5-11. Pitons
5-12. Chocks
5-13. Spring-Loaded Camming Device
5-14. Bolts
5-15. Equalizing Anchors
CHAPTER 6. CLIMBING
Section I. Climbing Fundamentals
6-1. Route Selection
6-2. Terrain Selection for Training
6-3. Preparation
6-4. Spotting
6-5. Climbing Technique
6-6. Safety Precautions
6-7. Margin of Safety
Section II. Use of Holds
6-8. Climbing With the Feet
6-9. Using the Hands
6-10. Combination Techniques
Section III. Roped Climbing
6-11. Tying-in to the Climbing Rope
6-12. Presewn Harnesses
6-13. Improvised Harnesses
Section IV. Belay Techniques
6-14. Procedure for Managing the Rope
6-15. Choosing a Belay Technique
6-16. Establishing a Belay
6-17. Setting Up a Belay
6-18. Top-Rope Belay
Section V. Climbing Commands
6-19. Verbal Commands
6-20. Rope Tug Commands
Section VI. Roped Climbing Methods
6-21. Top-Roped Climbing
6-22. Lead Climbing
6-23. Aid Climbing
6-24. Three-Man Climbing Team

CHAPTER 7. ROPE INSTALLATIONS
Section I. Fixed Rope
7-1. Installation
7-2. Utilization
7-3. Retrieval
7-4. Fixed Rope With Intermediate Anchors
Section II. Rappelling
7-5. Selection of a Rappel Point
7-6. Installation of the Rappel Point
7-7. Operation of the Rappel Point
7-8. Recovery of the Rappel Point
7-9. Types of Rappels
Section III. One-Rope Bridge
7-10. Site Selection
7-11. Installation Using Transport Tightening System
7-12. Installation Using Z-Pulley Tightening System
7-13. Utilization
7-14. Hauling Line
7-15. Retrieval
Section IV. Suspension Traverse
7-16. Site Selection
7-17. Installation
7-18. Retrieval
Section V. Vertical Hauling Line
7-19. Site Selection
7-20. Installation
7-21. Retrieval
Section VI. Simple Raising Systems
7-22. Z-Pulley System
7-23. U-Pulley System

CHAPTER 8. MOUNTAIN WALKING TECHNIQUES
  8-1. Basic Principles
8-2. Techniques
8-3. Safety Considerations
8-4. Navigation
8-5. Route Planning
8-6. Route Selection

CHAPTER 9 MOUNTAIN STREAM CROSSING
  9-1. Reconnaissance
9-2. Preparation of Troops and Equipment
9-3. Individual Crossings
9-4. Team Crossing
9-5. Rope Installations
9-6. Safety
9-7. Swimming

CHAPTER 10. MOVEMENT OVER SNOW AND ICE
  10-1. Movement Over Snow
10-2. Movement Over Ice
10-3. Use of Ice Ax and Crampons
10-4. Glissading
10-5. Snow and Ice Anchors
10-6. Roped Climbing on Ice and Snow
10-7. Movement on Glaciers
10-8. Glacier Bivouac Procedures

CHAPTER 11. MOUNTAIN RESCUE AND EVACUATION
  11-1. Considerations
11-2. Planning Rescue Operations
11-3. Mass Casualties
11-4. Special Training
11-5. Preparation for Evacuation
11-6. Manual Carries
11-7. Litters
11-8. Rescue Systems
11-9. Low-Angle Evacuation
11-10. High-Angle Evacuation

APPENDIX A. LEVELS OF MILITARY MOUNTAINEERING
APPENDIX B. MEASUREMENT CONVERSION FACTORS
APPENDIX C. AVALANCHE SEARCH AND RESCUE TECHNIQUES
GLOSSARY  
REFERENCES  
AUTHENTICATION

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.


*This publication supersedes TC 90-6-1, 26 April 1989.

 

 

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The day I came to the LORD, before I knew what a vision was, I saw myself walking through a devastated United States of America.  You need to accept Jesus as LORD and make what preparations He would have you make.  This site has basic only, survival information, hence the name Survival Primer, or beginning teaching book.  Most of the information has been gleaned from the internet.  The entire site, Survival and Christian, is saved to a single CD disk  that you can own.   The Christian teaching is from my church, and is original to it.  God has changed my life through the ministry of my church. God will change yours, through Jesus Christ, if you let Him.  My prayer is that God lead you into all truth, and that the abiding love that is expressed through His Son, Jesus Christ, come to rule and abide and infill your life, perfectly. Paul.

 

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