Feb 2006, compiled few cogent first aid articles, linked to each other.

Medical FAQ by Craig Ellis

Medical FAQ by Craig Ellis   .pdf   38 pages

Basic First Aid, from Maine Farm Safety  .pdf  6 Pages

First Aid, Field Sanitation from the Navy SeaBee Manual  .pdf   44 pages

Wilderness First Aid- Dvorchak. pdf  7 Pages

Wound Care  (from scrapes to sutures)  By George E. Dvorchak Jr. M.A., M.D.   .txt

Wound Care  (from scrapes to sutures)  By George E. Dvorchak Jr. M.A., M.D.    .pdf  4 pages

 

http://www.hopebeyond.com/SURVIVAL_FOREVER5.htm#Cold%20Weather

Survival Forever, Vol. 5, From Sleeping To Spiritual Survival- a guide to natural survival if lost in the wilderness

HERE IS THE ENTIRE VOLUME FIVE ON SURVIVAL IF YOU EVER GET LOST IN THE WILDERNESS.  Please copy it in part or in full for FREE; but please do not misrepresent it nor alter it nor sell it for monetary gain as it is copyrighted.  Please also read it for FREE here on the hopebeyond.com web site and please tell your friends to come visit our web site and read and/or download any book they desire for FREE for themselves or as a gift to others that is written by the author, Ronald Alan Duskis.  Thank you!  You may also buy this book in its entirety in a bound edition by clicking on "Ordering Books and Other Products" above.   Thank you! Enjoy!

Now the Table of Contents will be given before the start of the Survival Forever Book so that quick and easy links to your favorite chapters and topics can be made by cllicking on the blue colored links below:

Table of Contents

About the Author

Introduction

Disclaimers

Sleeping Outside With No Shelter

The Sleeping Bag

Digging Tools

Digging By Animal Parts

Digging Stick

Cutting Tools

Ax And Hatchet

Knives, Saws, And Tomahawks

Sharpening A Knife

Hammers

Nutcracker

During Cold Snowy Days

During Hot Sunny Days

Loss Of Water By Perspiration

Words Of Caution

Where To Find Water

From Plants

From Fish

From Snow And Even Glaciers

From Rivers, Lakes, Streams, Oceans, Etc.

From Rain

From Dew

From The Ocean

How To Find Water

By Looking For Lots Of Green Vegetation

By Looking For Special Kinds Of Plants

By Looking For Animal Game Trails, Etc.

By Looking For Special Places

By Looking At Other Places

How To Preserve Water In Your Body

Cups To Drink With

Purification Of Water

By Distilling The Water

By Boiling The Water

Qualities Of Boiled Water

Sweetening Water

Containers For Water

Hot Water Making

Special Use Of Water After Cooking

Cold Weather

Rainy, Wet, Windy Weather

Snow

Sunny Weather

MENTAL SURVIVAL

EMOTIONAL SURVIVAL

SPIRITUAL SURVIVAL

Glossary of Terms Used in This Book

Bibliography

Phones And Addresses That May Be Important To You

Collected Writings And/Or Videos On Living Skills

Classes, Workshops, And/Or Trips On Outdoor Living

Magazines On Outdoor Living

Memberships Available

Dressing For Survival (Boots, Brand Name Clothing, Etc.)

Hunting Equipment

Hunting Processing

Home Addresses On The Computer’s Internet

SURVIVAL FOREVER, Volume 5, From Sleeping To Spiritual Survival, a practical compilation.

by Ronald Alan Duskis, D.C., A.S.C.T., A.N.M.A., C.M.T., B.A. in Zoology at UCLA, A.C.A., Colorado Mountain Club Member

"So as to derive the fullest benefit from any survival kit, you may want to include a copy of this book if only for use as a portable memory. With such a compilation of fundamentals at hand for reference, it should be relatively easy in times of stress to devise reasonable solutions for almost any number of survival problems. To be sure then that this book is actually in the emergency kit and not on a library table when it is needed most, you or another may want to obtain a second volume which can be placed permanently in the survival outfit. Such a copy would be inexpensive and practical insurance, and therefore a particularly appropriate gift for a son, daughter, sweetheart, brother, sister, husband, wife, and anyone else important to the giver. For one day this book may be able to prevent from becoming any more than an adventure some incident that, through lack of information, might otherwise very easily turn into a catastrophe." (Angier, book 4, pages 240-241)

 Copyright for all editions, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999.. This present edition is January 1, 1999.  Right Publishers of America, AKA, Hope Beyond Publishers,   Advanced Health Techniques, P.C. Dr. Ronald Alan Duskis. 3307 South College, Suite 200, Fort Collins, Colorado 80525. Phone Number: 1-970-225-2200.


COPYRIGHT 1996,1997, 1998, and 1999 BY

HOPE BEYOND PUBLISHERS

All rights reserved. The author wishes that the information be used by anyone to enable himself or herself and others to also better learn true values forever. Therefore, reproduction in whole or any parts thereof in any form or by any media may be done as long as it is not for monetary gain nor taken out of context.


FIFTH EDITION, FIRST PRINTING

EDITORS: CHARISSA DUSKIS AND MARY DUSKIS

JANUARY 1, 1999

First Edition, First Printing is April 23, 1996

First Edition, Second Printing is June 4, 1996

First Edition, Third Printing is July 2, 1996

Second Edition, First Printing is October 14, 1996

Third Edition, First Printing is November 15, 1996

Fourth Edition, December 10, 1996

 

ISBN OR INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER

0-9647252-3-1

 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CARD CATALOG NUMBER

PENDING

 

PRINTED AND DISTRIBUTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY

HOPE BEYOND PUBLISHERS

3307 SOUTH COLLEGE, SUITE 200

FORT COLLINS, COLORADO 80525

PHONE NUMBER: 1-970-225-2200

WEBB SITE ADDRESS: http://www.hopebeyond.com

E-MAIL ADDRESS: raduskis@hotmail.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS

About the Author

Introduction

Disclaimers

Sleeping Outside With No Shelter

The Sleeping Bag

Digging Tools

Digging By Animal Parts

Digging Stick

Cutting Tools

Ax And Hatchet

Knives, Saws, And Tomahawks

Sharpening A Knife

Hammers

Nutcracker

During Cold Snowy Days

During Hot Sunny Days

Cold Weather

Rainy, Wet, Windy Weather

Snow

Sunny Weather

MENTAL SURVIVAL

EMOTIONAL SURVIVAL

SPIRITUAL SURVIVAL

Glossary of Terms Used in This Book

Bibliography

Phones And Addresses That May Be Important To You

Collected Writings And/Or Videos On Living Skills

Classes, Workshops, And/Or Trips On Outdoor Living

Magazines On Outdoor Living

Memberships Available

Dressing For Survival (Boots, Brand Name Clothing, Etc.)

Hunting Equipment

Hunting Processing

Home Addresses On The Computer’s Internet

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

From the earliest years I can remember, I had an intense interest in everything natural. I would examine the trees, bushes, grasses, soil, bugs, animals, humans, food, water, air, etc. I can remember doing this as early as about a few months old when I remember looking at my fingers and wondering about them. I remember examining soil, trees, shrubs, grasses, bugs, water, and the air polluted by people burning their trash in their back yards as early as about age 2 years. I would wonder around the yards of people examining everything I could, and in as much detail as possible. I would even ask people why they felt good or bad and what they felt made them feel that way as early as about age 4.

When my father and mother and my two brothers would take frequent trips in the car, I would examine the surroundings for plants and bugs. I started experimenting with eating more and more plants from about age 3, asking people what they ate so not to get sick or die. My hunger for knowledge, understanding, and wisdom in the area of outdoor living continued to grow daily. I can still hear my father's voice saying to me, "We have to go now!" This he would say loudly as I was found to be far away from the car examining the outdoors for details.

I remember studying by age 5 the sea shore, the mountain areas, the deserts, the lake regions, the back and front yards of neighbors. I would ask as many people as possible about anything about the outdoors. I started looking and reading book after book on the outdoors: the plants, animals, insects, stars, water, air, and any science dealing with that subject. Further, I went on as many camping and hiking trips I could find.

By the time I got in high school, I excelled in the sciences such as biology, botany, anatomy, physiology, pathology, and mathematics. My love for plants brought me to the class in horticulture in which I graduated with top honors in the whole school. I made exciting trips to such places as the Grand Canyon, National Parks, etc. There I was able to study and research more on outdoor life.

By the time I went to college, I was so excited about outdoor living, I graduated from UCLA in Zoology, 1969. I was in the Pre-medical program at UCLA. At UCLA, I not only got to study in depth about animals, but I got to do assistant research under the direction of Dr. James, a professor of Zoology in which we studied the effect of environment on organisms. I also remember Dr. James taking us to the ocean and teaching about outdoor living at the ocean.

By early 1970, I was teaching at a private Jr. High and High School in the sciences. I always emphasized how to apply the sciences to life outdoors. By May of l970, I was teaching the sciences at Cleveland Chiropractic College. I was blessed to teach all the subjects on health, including Philosophy and Psychiatry. Other subjects taught were Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Chemistry including Inorganic and Organic and Biochemistry, Geriatrics, Pediatrics, Histology, Nutrition, Clinic, etc.

Since l970 I have learned by taking classes, reading, talking to experts, etc. everything I can about outdoor living. My real life experiences in the outdoors is noted in Comment of mine: throughout the book. My patients and others have asked me to put on paper what I have learned. That can only be done on a simple level. I will try to cover as much of the important survival techniques as possible. I will try to get a book of about 500 pages or more out within the next twelve months to help as many people as possible quickly. I plan to expand on this book in future editions. I am also available for radio and/or TV talk shows. I have been a guest on a number of radio shows about this subject.

INTRODUCTION

Congratulations! You have survived this far in your life! Let's now survive from this point on unto forever! The road to survival is quite easy when taken from the view of why you were born. You and I are given the greatest opportunity in the entire universe by the Creator of all things to go from being in His image to being a very member in His Divine Family. To this cause we need to grow in His Character traits such as love and truth as well as many other of His Character traits. In order to achieve this goal we need to survive through time exercising these traits not only in every physical situation but in any situation that brings varied emotional, mental, and spiritual responses within us.

This book shows how to gain more time by surviving physically, mentally, and emotionally in order to achieve the developing Character traits necessary to be a part of that highest spiritual goal. So sit back and enjoy the journey that we all must be partakers of if we so desire the most excellent development we were called to have forever! Survive not just now but forever and ever!

This precious book will not only teach and give you confidence about good survival techniques on such subjects as keeping warm, having enough food and water, always having enough shelter or housing; but, it will further answer questions about what to do if you meet a "wild animal" such as a bear or wolf. It also discusses insect problems in an informative manner. But best of all, it attempts to help the reader to not just cope with survival; but rather, to have a purpose in surviving!

 DISCLAIMERS

"The golden rule of food-gathering is only eat those things you have positively identified as edible. Avoid advice that recommends field testing unknown plants—it is not worth the risk." (Mears, page 71)

"Innumerable edible wild fruits, barks, roots, seeds, flowers, pods, saps, gums, herbs, nuts, leaves, greens, and tubers are both nourishing and satisfying. The need for extreme discretion unless one is sure of what he is eating can not be overemphasized, however, as we all realize. The possible gain in an absolute emergency might be important enough, in ratio to risk, that we would be justified in trying a very small sample of a strange plant, then if all went well a slightly larger sample, and so on. This process should be stretched over as long a period as reasonable, certainly no less than twenty-four hours, because of the slowness in which some poisons act. During that time we'd be watching with as much detachment as we could muster for any ill effects. If everything seemed all right, we would then be justified if the emergency continued to consider the plant edible in at least small quantities." (Angier, pages 39-40) Comment of mine: The reader must first study with a qualified Professional in the field of survival before attempting to try any suggestions in this book.

"WARNING. Never eat large quantities of strange plants without testing them first. Prepare a cooked sample, then take a mouthful, chew it, hold it in your mouth for five minutes. If it still tastes good, go ahead and eat it. If it tastes disagreeable, don't eat it. Generally, an unpleasant taste does not, in itself, necessarily mean poison, but a burning, nauseating, or bitter taste is a warning!" (Merrill, page 94)

"Disclaimer…This book is a guide to survival in difficult circumstances. Although the author recommends various medicines and procedures for specific situations, the book is not intended as a substitute for proper medical care or medical advice from your own doctor. None of the procedures or medicines suggested in this book should be used without first discussing your own medical condition and the book’s procedures and medicines with your own doctor." (Maniguet, page vii)

"Because I am a doctor, I am interested in having a personal first aid kit that I know to be adequate for any problem I am likely to encounter in my outings…I realize I may be criticized by some of my medical colleagues for suggesting a do-it-yourself kit for serious injuries. I want to make it clear that medical attention should be sought for injuries other than minor ones, but if such attention cannot be obtained, preparations must be made to provide for emergency treatment and to prevent needless discomfort…The items in my kit are not what the average fellow would carry. This is an important point. The average person carries a lot of worthless bulk, and nine times out of ten does the wrong thing with what he does have. I see daily evidences of this in my practice." (Angier, book 5, pages 122-123)

"When you have found a campsite that suits you, get permission to use it if it’s on private land, and be certain to live up to whatever restrictions the property owner may impose." (Lynn, page 43)

"...it is only the most basic common sense never to take the slightest unnecessary risk with doubtful water." (Angier, page 90)

"A good rule is not to pass up any reasonable food sources if we are ever in need. There are many dead men who, through ignorance...did." (Angier, page 22) Comment of mine: There is so much food everywhere! If ever in the need of food just look around! The always present food is grass besides the multitude of other edible foods. The reader needs to familiarize himself/herself by reading this book, the Bible, and other books in the library. Always remember to never eat anything that you do not know is safe. I have probably eaten hundreds of plants throughout the world but first made sure they were safe!

"HANTAVIRUS WARNING!...The...virus is fatal in humans. It is spread through contact with deer mice and possibly other rodents-most notably through the breathing of the (dust?) of their scat or droppings but also possibly through other contacts. In chapters 4 and 5 we have spoken of trapping and eating mice and other rodents. We now advise against this practice. If in a survival situation you find yourself following these techniques, do use extreme caution." (McPherson, inside front cover page) Comment of mine: The Bible teaches that mice and other rodents are not fit for human eating and need to be avoided. There is plenty of food everywhere to eat, as will be shown throughout this book, so that no gambling with your life is ever necessary. That is, risks may sometimes be necessary but not gambling where the odds of survival are against you!

"Actual hundreds of wild foods enhance as might be expected the fields and woodlands, mountains and canyons, the deserts, shores, and certainly the swamplands. Adding from season to season the recognition of a few more can be, as you've perhaps already discovered, an engrossing and practical hobby, as well as a way both thrifty and healthful of pleasantly introducing new delicacies to the table. Such acquired knowledge can even mean, in some unforeseen emergency, the difference between eating bountifully and starving." (Angier, page 31) Comment of mine: The reader is urged to never stop growing in knowledge, understanding, and wisdom in the field of survival. From all of the hundreds of books I have studied on this subject over a period of about forty years, coupled with increasing intensity of on site experience over the same number of years, I have continued to learn what safety is in survival. This book is not a substitute for all the available writings on the subject of survival nor a substitute for on site training such as given by the National Forest service. I have been given and am highly grateful for the many hours of free classes given by the Rocky Mountain National Forest service. Also, please note that there are outdoor living classes and videos on survival issues if you contact REI or other outdoor living stores in your yellow pages.

"Find out about fire regulations in advance and get any necessary fire permits. Some regions allow campfires only in prescribed locations. In any event, it does not pay to take chances with a fire. Never kindle one on surfaces made up largely of decomposed and living vegetation. Fire will sometimes eat deeply into such footing. An individual may think he has put it out; but unseen and unsuspected, it may smolder for days and weeks. It may lie nearly dormant during an entire winter. With the warmth and increasing dryness of spring, it may regain new vigor, until one hot day a strong wind can cause it to erupt into a devastating forest fire." (Angier, book 5, page 151)

"I ASSUME NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY INJURY RESULTING FROM EXPLODING ROCKS...But just a bit of knowledge and common sense will prevent any (or most) mishaps. I generally prefer 'creek rocks', NOT FOUND IN CREEKS. The hard, roundish granite type stones seem to me to work about the best. Just pick them from higher ground. Those that have been soaked in water just might have gotten moisture inside through tiny cracks which, when heated, can't get out slowly enough for the crack to accommodate...and so, bang." (McPherson, page 218)

"Warning…None of the outdoors activities and techniques described in this book should be performed on private land without the consent of the landowner. In all cases you should check the ownership and any by-laws relating to a piece of land before you start." (Mears, page 4)

"Real care must be constantly taken with fire in shelters." (McPherson, page 377)

Sleeping

"As old outdoorsmen sometimes remark, they go into the woods to have a good time, and a third of that time is spent in bed. You won’t have an enjoyable or even a refreshing vacation unless you get a reasonably relaxing sleep most nights—and it is in the bed that most of the beginner’s discomfort starts. When an experienced woodsman makes a camp, he gives attention to his bed first of all." (Angier, book 5, page 58)

"The crackle of your campfire takes on an unexpected coziness, and even the smallest tent all at once seems as snug and satisfying as a mansion." (Angier, book 5, page 154)

Sleeping Outside With No Shelter:

"Beds need not be fancy or difficult to make. My own favorite winter bed is made from lengths of dead poplar or cottonwood logs. When these short-lived softwoods die the tops break off in the wind, leaving sections of trunk sticking above the winter hardpack. These dead trunks are easy to break off and several of them laid side by side on the snow with a thick covering of pine boughs will provide as much insulation from the ground as possible. Building a fire on a similar platform next to the bed will allow you to keep warm while sleeping outside in clear weather. If one is traveling and can avoid building a shelter at the end of a day’s trek, why waste the effort? (McDougall, page 47)

"Tentless camping, particularly if you include some provision for emergency shelter in your outfit, is also practical in other areas. And no wilderness nights are more memorable, in good weather, than those spent entirely in the open." (Angier, book 5, page 66)

"The way to start making a browse bed is by placing a deep layer of boughs at the head. The branches are laid upside down, opposite to the way they grow. The butts point toward the foot of the bed and are well covered by succeeding layers. Row after row is laid in this manner. The final mattress should be at least one foot thick. It should be leveled off and given additional resiliency by young evergreen tips shoved in wherever a space can be found. The first night on such a bed is something that everyone should experience at least once. The second night it will be a bit lumpy. After the third night, you will probably bring in a load of fresh boughs and, after fluffing and rearranging the old aromatic bed, renovate it by interposing new materials as effectively as possible." (Angier, book 5, paage 59)

"A fifteen-ounce poncho, 5 ½ by 7 ½ feet, which folds into a pocket-sized wad, will keep even the backpacker’s knees dry in wet going in the open, and will ward off chilly wind along the ridges. It will also quickly waterproof a makeshift lean-to shelter. On nights when you prefer to sleep beneath the stars, this poncho will protect your sleeping bag from ground damp. (Take a light mosquito bar into country where you man need one.)" (Angier, book 5, page 63)

The Sleeping Bag (See also the Debris Shelter in the Chapter on Shelters and Housing):

"The bag is so important that it would be advisable to make any necessary savings elsewhere—perhaps by passing up the new light-weight simplicities in the food line and relying, for a while at least, on the old-fashioned staples." (Angier, book 5, page 49)

"The most effective insulation known is dry, still air. Thus the effectiveness of bed materials in keeping one warm is in direct proportion, not to their weight, but to the number of dead air cells they can maintain. The thicker a sleeping robe or blanket is and the fluffier its nature, the more inert air it affords." (Angier, book 5, pages 47-48)

"In addition to a sleeping bag, you will probaby want some kind of mattress—a tick that you can fill with straw when you reach camp, or an air mattress. And you will need a waterproof groundsheet (plastic sheeting is fine) to keep out the moisture in the ground." (Lynn, page 34)

"The job of your bedding is to keep in body warmth and to keep the cool of the night out. For this you need some kind of insulation all around you, and your best insulation is the air that is imprisoned in your bed covering. The fluffier it is, the warmer you will be." (Lynn, page 34)

"To keep outside moisture from wetting the bag, place protective insulating material, such as the air mattress, poncho, clothing, and spruce or pine boughs under it. Avoid sweating by wearing the least amount of clothing necessary inside the bag to keep warm and by using the proper sleeping bag for temperature conditions...If your face gets too cold, cover it with a towel or muffler." (Desert Publications, pages 19-20) Comment of mine: The reader can go to the Yellow Pages and find good sleeping bags. I bought one recently that has about a minus 35 degrees protection factor from the cold because it is filled with a special quality of down feathers. The reader may find it very informative to go to one of these Outdoor Living Stores. But one special note here that has already been covered in this book in the Chapter on Shelters and Housing under the topic of the Debris Shelter; the reader can always use imagination and some healthy work in constructing a sleeping bag wherever he/she finds himself/herself in the "wild" if necessary!

"And generally, in the usual vacation weather, you should be able to depend on your sleeping bag to give you enough warmth at night without any fire." (Angier, book 5, page 112)

"The sleeping bag, next to the pack itself, is the most important piece of equipment to be selected…the sleeping bag, in which you’re going to be spending on the average of a third of every day, has to be adequate if you’re going to keep refreshed enough to keep enjoying yourself…In really cold weather a poor bag can actually be dangerous…in mild weather, you have a wider choice…No sleeping bag produces any warmth by itself. In the absence of a fire, the body is ordinarily the only heat-generating machine…" (Angier, book 5, pages 46-47)

"And generally, in the usual vacation weather, you should be able to depend on your sleeping bag to give you enough warmth at night without any fire." (Angier, book 5, page 112)

"The most nearly ideal insulating material, for use in sleeping bags and in cold-weather clothing, is to be found in the delicate down of birds. This down varies even among the same speicies of birds. Generally speaking, the finest grade of down available commercially is the very best white goose down. There is also a lower grade, which is no warmer than the best of grey goose down. Other goose down is next, followed by prime duck down. Still other downs follow, trialed by a mixture of down and feathers, and then by feathers themselves." (Angier, book 5, page 49)

"One difficulty experienced with sleeping bags in which down and feather fillers are used is that this insulation has a tendency to shift towards the bottom. This leaves the upper area of the robe vulnerable to low temperatures. In some instances it results in the expense and nuisance of returning the article to the factory for renovation. You can redistribute the filler on the spot, as a matter of fact. The process is very simple. Open the article if possible. Lay it on a hard surface, such as the ground or floor, with the inside upward. Procure a supple stick about a yard long. Then start beating the robe lightly from the foot up toward the top. You will be able to feel when a reasonably uniform thickness has been restored. If necessary, turn the robe over and go through the same process on the other side." (Angier, book 5, pages 53-54)

"A light elderdown jacket is one of the most comfortable garments I know of to put on when you stop, tired and enthusiastic, for the night. These are even handy on the desert, as most desert country gets surprisingly cold as soon as the sun sinks. And the heat, with little moisture in the atmosphere to beat it back, goes out of the sand and rocks. At night when you sit in front of your campfire, one feels luxurious against your otherwise chilly back. If your sleeping bag is the least bit cold when you go to bed, spread this jacket between the robe and the mattress." (Angier, book 5, page 92)

"Here are two tips that will help you keep warm in your sleeping bag and let you get a good sleep:...Eat a little something just before you crawl in the bag...This gives your body a little energy and lets you sleep warmer...Always relieve yourself just before you go to bed. The act of getting out of a warm sleeping bag to go outside can be a chilling experience!" (Desert Publications, page 21)

"During winter in high country, winds have to be combatted in addition to cold temperatures. In a twenty-mile-an-hour, head-on wind, regular woolen clothing loses about 55 per cent of the warmth it maintains in still air. Get a much faster wind in weather thirty degrees below and, unless you put on windproofs, you feel as if you’re wearing burlap…to get the fullest benefit from…an undersuit, you still need a wind-breaker…A fringe benefit is that such a suit can effectively be worn cold nights as a second sleeping bag inside the regular combination." (Angier, book 5, page 95)

"…insulation…perhaps a fiber-pile sleeping-bag liner…" (Mears, page 182)

"In addition to its compactness and lightness, there are two reasons for selecting a mummy bag for your back-packing vacation. First of all, the volume of the bag which must be heated by the body is kept at a minimum. Secondly, the surface area of the bag through which this heat is lost is likewise kept as small as possible. Therefore you have the warmest arrangement that is available." (Angier, book 5, page 50)

"You may find that some sort of pillow will add to your comfort. This may be a folded shirt. If you’ve ounces to spare, it may be a small pillow case that you can stuff daily with dry pine needles or wild marsh hay. It may be an air pillow that you can inflate by mouth in a few seconds. One of these, weighing only an ounce or so, can be carried readily accessible during cold weather and used, too, as a dry seat." (Angier, book 5, pages 57-58)

 

Storage of Food, Etc.

"Fruits, herbs, meats and grains can all be stored during the dark winter months; without such provisions you will have to forage very widely indeed and become versatile in your approach to what is edible…You can obtain carbohydrate from the roots of dormant plants, so you need to develop a keen eye for the decaying leaves and stems of edible plants. If the ground is frozen, you may have to thaw it with fire to extract the root…Look for roots that can be extracted from the ground without too much effort, and take advantage of mild spells when the soil is not hardened by frost. Cat’s-tails, arrowheads and other edible water-dwelling plants are easier to gather than roots…Even in the depths of winter there are fresh out-of-season greens to be had. Keep your eyes peeled for them. Dandelion, dock and other hardy plants are often available, particularly in sunny locations sheltered from the biting winds. Don’t let opportunities such as these pass you by. You can still find rose hips on the bush even when there is snow on the ground. Packed full of vitamin C, they are true winter treasure, well worth the effort of collection and preparation. Towards the end of winter, early spring flowers are sometimes tricked into the air, fooled by the occasional sunny day. In fact, during this period you may come across almost any of the spring and autumn foods we have learned about, so stay alert." (Mears, pages 216-217)

"It was a common Southwestern practice to grow enough food so that some could be dried and stored for emergencies. If emergency supplies also ran low, the Indians turned to the local wild plants. If these also failed, the Indians moved up into the mountains to gather the wild plants that might have survived in the cooler atmosphere." (Goodchild, page 9)

Tea

A Special Note: Not Only Do Humans Drink Tea But Plants Have A Tea When The Rains Turn The Leaves That Have Fallen Into A Kind Of Tea For The Trees And Shrubs:

"Autumn…The fallen leaves lying on the forest floor still have a vital contribution to make. They must return to the earth to complete the circle of life, their nutrients being absorbed by the soil through the late autumn and winter months so as to provide nourishment for trees and plants." (Mears, page 142)

"I have already mentioned a number of wild plants that can be used to prepare beverages to substitute for tea and coffee, such as dandelion or chicory roots, sassafras, sweet birch, spicebush and persimmon leaves." (Gibbons, page 208)

From the Pine Tree Family:

"Spruce tea can be made, by steeping fresh evergreen needles in water, that will be as potent with the both preventative and curative ascorbic acid as the ordinary orange juice." (Angier, page 26)

"…one of the traditional cures for scurvy was spruce-leaf tea—the spruce needles are steeped in water which has just dropped from the boil…Boiling would destroy the vitamin C." (Mears, page 216)

"Pine needles…The young light-green needles chopped finely and steeped in hot water make an excellent tea. Rich in vitamins A and C, this tea was a traditional remedy for scurvy employed by native Americans." (Mears, page 78)

"Hot pine tea, made by steeping the needles or by boiling gum or pitch, was one of the earliest cold remedies." (Angier, Book 2, page 17) Comment of mine: Nearly daily, I eat something from the earth such as grass or pine needles. I have not been sick for over eleven years now, 1997. I also watch which foods not to eat. I avoid foods that appear to have no life or that do not look healthy. Check with the right authorities to see how you too can eat foods from the earth. Also, my book on "Groceries: How To Use Them For Any Good Reason" can be obtained for only $20 plus $3 for postage and handling from Advanced Health Techniques, 3307 South College, Suite 200, Fort Collins, Colorado 80525.

From the Juniper Tree or Shrub Family:

"The fruit and the young shoots have been used to make a kind of tea." (Harrington, page 242)

"Juniper tea, quaffed in small amounts, is one of the decidedly pleasant evergreen beverages. Add about a dozen young berryless sprigs to a quart of cold water. Bring this to a boil, cover, reduce the heat, and allow to simmer for 10 minutes. Then remove from the fire and steep for another 10 minutes. Strain and serve like regular tea." (Angier, Book 2, page 46)

From the Willow Tree Family:

"The poplars, members of the great willow family...The soft formative tissue between wood and bark can be scraped off and eaten on the spot. One of the modern ways of obtaining such nourishment is in tea." (Angier, Book 2, page 91)

From The Birch Tree Family:

"What is the value of birch sap? It can be used as a pure source of water in an emergency, although it is unwise to drink large quantities due to its sugar content. It is especially good in place of water for wild tea infusions." (Mears, page 56)

From the Berry Family:

"Blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry leaves…The leaves of these three familiar fruits have long been dried and used for tea and in home remedies. Gather the leaves while the plant is in flower and dry them as directed with other tea materials. One word of warning: be sure these leaves are thoroughly dry before you use them as tea, for, as the leaves wilt, they develop a poison which is driven off or altered in composition as the leaves get thoroughly dry. There have been cases of livestock being poisoned by wilted berry leaves, but when these leaves are contained in fully dry, cured hay they cause no ill effects." (Gibbons, page 210)

"Berryleaf Tea is probably the most effective home remedy for diarrhea but, aside from its medicinal uses, it is also a pleasant beverage and wholesome in reasonable quantities. It contains tannin (as does Oriental tea) and has a pleasant aroma; the flavor differs slightly according to which species is used but all of them make an acceptable substitute for tea.``" (Gibbons, page 210)

"...blackberries, raspberries...Young leaves, tossed into boiling water and set away from the fire to steep, make an agreeable frontier tea." (Angier, pages 35-36)

 

"Raspberry (Rubus idaeus)…Wonderful, tempting berries; leaves make fine herbal tea." (Mears, page 131)

 

From Clover:

"Clover heads can be dried and used as tea, although for the best results mix them with other teas. These heads are particularly rich in protein; to make them more digestible, boil briefly." (Mears, page 78)

Tools

Digging:

Digging By Animal Parts:

"The game of any region is a finite resource, and no part of it should be wasted. In fact, many important resource materials can be obtained from animal carcasses…Shoulder blade…This spade-shaped bone can be used to scrape hides or dig the ground…Ribs were traditionally made into straining sieves, sled runners and curved needles." (Mears, pages 164-165)

Digging Stick:

"Some wild roots are easily dug up, but the majority cling tenaciously to the soil to avoid being uprooted for food. By far the best method for their extraction is with the careful and patient use of a digging stick, one of humanity’s oldest tools. If you try to use brute force the roots will simply break off, leaving you tired and hungry. Remember that to make a positive identification it is preferable to extract the roots still attached to the leaves." (Mears, page 73)

"The stick is easy to carve from hard wood…A digging stick needs a beveled chisel end, sharp but strong. It helps if the end is fire-hardened—heat it close to the embers of your fire until just before scorching." (Mears, page 73)

"Using the stick…1. With a casual, relaxed action, excavate a deep hole alongside the root. If possible follow the root down, making sure you reach down to its tip…2. Work patiently—you will discover that many of the best wild roots cling tenaciously to the soil. Weaken the soil thoroughly on either side of the root so that it can be eased sideways into the hole you have dug. Carefully fill in the hole again after extraction." (Mears, page 73)

Cutting Tools:

Ax And Hatchet:

"Although the ax is an almost indispensable tool for the woodsman—many of whom rate it even above matches as the most valuable item to have along in the bush—one is very seldom necessary on a backpacking vacation. The one exception would be when you are traveling in very cold weather and depending on night fires for warmth. If you do elect to take an ax, perhaps for use in a base camp, the handiest model for packing, although not for any great amount of work, is the Hudson Bay model with a narrow butt and a face of normal width." (Angier, book 5, page 111)

Knives, Saws, And Tomahawks:

"Many campers are content to carry nothing more than a Swiss army knife or Leatherman tool with them. But if you are heading for more remote regions you are going to need a stronger cutting tool. My preference is for a small sheath-knife, backed up by a tomahawk and a folding saw—depending on where I am going, how light I wish to travel and what season it is…Collapsible saw…Excellent, lightweight; needs no skill in use or sharpening; leaves a clean cut, so helps tree heal…Woodlore tomahawk…Harder to use but versatile; almost essential for cold-weather bivouacking; weighs 1 pound, 6 ounces with case." (Mears, page 21)

"There is no time in any wooded area when a campfire cannot thus be built from materials at hand. You can always either find or make a sheltered nook. Even when a cold rain is freezing as it falls, shavings and kindling can be provided with a knife. If you do not have a suitable knife, you can still shatter and splinter enough dead wood with which to kindle a blaze. If (preferably) birch bark is available from a dead tree, one sheet will form a dry base on which to arrange campfire makings, while other sheets angled about and above will keep off moisture until the fire is crackling." (Angier, book 5, pages 147-148)

"A pocket knife with a single thin blade will admittedly serve many purposes. But most of us find that, particularly during ultralight travel, it is practical to add a sheath knife for the heavier tasks. A light blade five or six inches long works well for cutting boughs, getting some fuel, building shelters, and performing other tasks in the bush. A substantial sheath should be added for safety. If you don’t want to carry it on your belt, it packs handily." (Angier, book 5, page 109)

"A proper survival knife should be reasonably long, resistant to shearing and to bending; the blade should be a part of the handle with no break or gap. Since the handle must have a minimum size, it should be hollow and waterproof, providing a place for small, useful utensils. The choice of what to put inside is left to the imagination of each individual according to his purpose: items such as surgical blades, pills, tweezers, safety pins, hooks or pencil leads can be kept inside. The metal alloy must obviously be totally air and water-resistant, and one must be able to sharpen it. An ideal choice is a model with a second small blade specially designed to debone and cut up game, and which can very easily be transformed into a harpoon. The main blade has deep, double saw teeth on the back, and they are slanted in such a way that one can saw very effectively in a forward direction." (Maniguet, pages 410-411)

"The importance of your knife…A small knife is a necessity. A sheath-knife that cannot fold on to your finger is best. The knife should be compact, with a handle that is easily grasped. Above all, it must be strong and kept sharp…Strong antler or hardwood grip…Shaped grip so that you can feel the edge side and avoid your finger slipping on to it in the dark; a guard is an encumbrance…Bevel edge easily maintained and perfect for carving…Strong blade wide enough to be easily held forwards of the grip-The Woodlore Knife." (Mears, page 21)

"Indians used to make saws of bone and stone, and with good reason. One can work up firewood much more swiftly and easily, and with less risk, with a saw designed for the purpose than with any ax or hatchet. A number of ortable saws are offered by the sporting goods dealers. One particularly handy and light variety consists of a blade that folds into a steel handle. Other models are effectual too, and weigh only a few ounces. You’ll want a blade that’s toothed especially to cut firewood." (Angier, book 5, pages 110-111)

Sharpening A Knife:

"A blunt knife is dangerous. It requires more pressure behind it to cut, and tends to slip on the surface it is cutting rather than biting in like a sharp knife. There is no point in buying any knife if you don’t have the means to keep it sharp…In the field…1. Steady blade on tree-stump. With small stone lubricated with spittle, stroke edge in sawing action. Always keep flat on stone in full contact with bevel…2. Strop…blade to make edge more robust. If this is not done, edge will tend to blunt more quickly. Stropping can be carried out on back of a 2 inch leather belt. Drag blade away from edge, alternating direction each stroke. Fifty strokes will see job done." (Mears, pages 232-233)

"Although a good hand-crafted trail knife is quite expensive, you get what you pay for. Mine, a W.D. Randall knife, has stood by me in some rather strenuous pinches. It has a slim yet rugged six-inch blade and a light, unbreakable handle in which is set a small accurate compass—which is my emergency spare in case the regular compass ever becomes lost. In a snap pocket on the outside of the sheath is a little carorundum stone, with a medium grit on one side and a fine grit on the other, for keeping the blade sharp." (Angier, book 5, page 110)

"A tiny light carborundum stone, preferably with a fine and a coarse side, is a necessity for keeping yor cutting edges sharp. These little abrasive stones last so many years and are used so often that it’s little wonder that some of them become more and more clogged with grime, progressively losing their effectiveness. To restore the cutting ability of your dirt-clogged carborundum, just put the stone in a good bed of coals until it is red hot. Then it will be all right again." (Angier, book 5, page 110)

Hammer:

"Use tomahawk as wedge: hammer through workpiece with wooden batten." (Mears, page 206)

Nutcracker:

"A simple nutcracker can be fashioned from a hazel branch. Cut just below a fork and 8 inches above the fork, and you have a naturally springy U-shaped nutcracker." (Mears, page 169)

Traveling

"The pleasure to be derived from any trip into the farther places may be divided into three parts: the zest of getting ready, the journey itself, and the enjoyment of remembering." (Angier, book 5, page 98)

"If you do any wilderness traveling, you'll find there are many situations where you will need a sudden emergency shelter." (Merrill, page 65)

"Most of us find that we can maintain better, and therefore safer, balance by keeping the feet pointed as nearly straight ahead as is comfortable. A lot of hikers also find it is not too tiring to come up on the toes, thus gaining both impetus and distance….it may be well to remember that it usually requires a disproportionate amount of energy to travel straight up and down hills, as the trails of animals show they well know. We will generally do better in the long run either to zigzag or to slant off at a gradual pitch." (Angier, book 5, page 137)

"This is a highly individual matter, although it is generally flexible enough to be moderated to fit a party’s average rate of travel. The main thing is not to press. The best test of an ideal pace is that you hold it all day. This does not mean that you’ll necessarily walk at the same speed for the entire day. In the chill of the morning, I personally like to go out fast to keep warm rather than to burden myself with extra clothing that will become too hot later on. After lunch, I usually have another spurt of energy, slackening off in the afternoon until the thoughts of that next camp quicken my steps again along toward the end of that particular hiking day. The main thing is not to make a chore out of any of it, but rather to see what’s happening about you and to enjoy yourself to the fullest along the way." (Angier, book 5, page 135)

"A sensible formula to repeat and to heed whenever walking in the wilderness is: Never step on anything you can step over, and never step over anything you can step around." (Angier, book 5, page 137)

During Cold Snowy Days:

"The one thing to avoid is the sort of prolonged rest that lets you get cold and stiff and consequently makes the remaining miles really tough. These are a real danger when you’re pressing hard and fast. In ordinary going where you keep well within your capacities, there is ordinarily little danger if you always start traveling again while you’re still warm. This doesn’t mean that an occasional taste of the really rough sort of traveling isn’t refreshing too—because aching legs and laboring lungs usually have a few more miles left in them, and also the human frame increases its efficiency most quickly when it is driven closest to its limits." (Angier, book 5, page 136)

"Beds need not be fancy or difficult to make. My own favorite winter bed is made from lengths of dead poplar or cottonwood logs. When these short-lived softwoods die the tops break off in the wind, leaving sections of trunk sticking above the winter hardpack. These dead trunks are easy to break off and several of them laid side by side on the snow with a thick covering of pine boughs will provide as much insulation from the ground as possible. Building a fire on a similar platform next to the bed will allow you to keep warm while sleeping outside in clear weather. If one is traveling and can avoid building a shelter at the end of a day’s trek, why waste the effort? (McDougall, page 47)

During Hot Sunny Days:

"…the sun can be as dangerous as any other weather condition. Prolonged exposure to a hot sun can cause dehydration, heat exhaustion, and finally, heat stroke…traveling through open country should be restricted to the hours between dusk and dawn." (McDougall, page 47)

"Perspiration wastes water; by traveling only at night in hot, open terrain, precious water will be conserved and the potential for heat exhaustion reduced." (McDougall, page 47)

"Night travel is always recommended when traveling on foot through arid country. Even the slightest physical exertion in temperatures that routinely top 100 degrees Fahrenheit will cause you to perspire heavily, and noticeably and seriously deplete your body’s precious water supply. Conversely, the cloudless sky will allow the heat of the day to dissipate rapidly after sunset, with temperatures sometimes falling to the freezing mark. Since the nights are too cold to sleep and the days too hot to walk, the survivalist should always travel at night, holding up in a shady spot during the day." (McDougall, pages 95-96)

Vegetarianism

"'One farmer says to me,' Thoreau recounted, 'You cannot live on vegetable food solely, for it furnishes nothing to make bones with'; walking all the while he talks behind his oxen, which, with vegetable-made bones, jerk him and his plow along.'" (Angier, page 50) Comment of mine: Thoughout this book the reader can see that there is enough food value in vegetables alone to keep a person alive and well if a person knows how to combine the vegetables correctly. I have in the past been a vegetarian and lived quite well. Although, in all my nearly fifty years of life I have never yet found a true vegetarian, including myself, since vegetarians usually consume some food from non vegetarian sources such as honey from insects. Some vegetarians even eat eggs from the chicken and are called ovo-vegetarians; some eat fish and are called pisces-vegetarians; and some drink milk from the cow or goat and are called lacto-vegetarians. But if forced to live in a survival situation in the city or the "wilderness" I could live on the trees, bushes, lichen, and grasses alone; although I do expect that some other source of food would also be available if I would desire to choose such!

Water

"Water is as vitallly important when the weather is cold as when it is hot, for in cold conditions water keeps you warm." (Mears, page 198)

Loss Of Water By Perspiration:

"To cross an arid stretch of wild country, you need to be…resorceful with regard to water. It is essential to prevent unnecessary moisture loss—it is amazing how many tragic cases of fatal dehydration are attributable to wrong decision-making in this respect. The basic principle is to avoid moving about when the sun is at its hottest…Most importantly, recognize that exposed skin keeps you cool through the evaporation of your sweat: keep as much of your skin covered as possible to reduce this loss of moisture. Also keep your mouth closed to avoid exhaling more moisture than is necessary—sucking a stone helps." (Mears, page 88) Comment of mine: Please remember what is discussed in various places throughout this book; that grasses and other edible plants provide all the water needed anywhere you go just by liquifying these by chewing on them slowly.

"Perspiration wastes water; by traveling only at night in hot, open terrain, precious water will be conserved and the potential for heat exhaustion reduced." (McDougall, page 47)

Words of Caution:

"An average human can function well for long periods of time without eating, but none of us can survive more than four or five days without water, and even less if the weather is hot. The combined effects of too much sun and too little water can be especially devastating to the individual who must travel." (McDougall, page 81)

"...it is only the most basic common sense never to take the slightest unnecessary risk with doubtful water...How can we tell then if water is pure? Short of laboratory tests we can not, for even where a mountain rill bubbles through sheer mountain fastness, the putrefying carcass of a winter-killed animal may be lying a few yards upstream...The safest principle in any event is to assume all water is impure until it has been proved otherwise, positively and recently." (Angier, pages 90-91) Comments of mine: Please always remember what has been pointed out over and over again in this book: Plants, such as grasses and other edible ones, are a good source of water! Just chew them and see the amount of juice, which contains the water, comes out!

"Fortunately, most areas of North America have an abundance of water. But unfortunately, many water sources have become polluted, or contain parasites that can put the strongest of us out of commission, sometimes in just a few hours. In most cases these diseases are the result of parasitic infestation by nematodes and trematodes, two families whose members include such unsavory creatures as hookworms, pinworms, tapeworms, and other organisms that live in the host’s internal organs. There are literaly hundreds of thousands of species of these tiny animals living in the soil and water worldwide. Eighty thousand of them are known to parasitize vertebrate animals and more than fifty species are dangerous to man." (McDougall, page 81)

"Surface water is usually more polluted than underground water. Do not be fooled by 'pure'-looking streams or lakes." (Eduardo, page 2)

"A few water holes, as in the southwestern deserts of this continent, contain dissolved poisons such as arsenic. One is usually able to recognize such a water hole easily, partly because bones of unwary animals may be scattered about, but mainly because green vegetation will be conspicuously absent. The safest general rule, therefore, is to avoid any water holes around which green plants are not thriving." (Angier, page 92)

"Drink plenty of water. During acclimatization to high altitude the human body needs to process more water than normal. Finding the water or melting snow, and treating it or boiling it takes time and effort, but it is crucial. Consume enough water to keep urine clear, not yellow. This will require you to deal with the nuisance of frequent urination, but again, it is crucial." (Colorado Mountain Club, page 385)

"…when you are bundled up in insulative clothing, it is easy to misjudge how dehydrated you are becoming." (Mears, page 198)

Where to Find Water:

From plants:

"Like people, plants need water to live, and like people, their tissues contain a large percentage of water. All of us have heard about how aboriginal peoples obtain liquid from jungle lianas, desert cacti, or underground tubers, but the truth is that all non-toxic soft-bodied plants and their roots can be used to provide a thirst-quenching juice." (McDougall, pages 94-95)

"Wild foods are good foods, with high vitamin and mineral content. Fleshy-leafed plants make good salad greens; and fresh wild fruits and berries provide fluid when water supplies are low and will help to keep the intestinal tract functioning properly." (Merrill, page 287)

"If you happen to be in a tropical zone, drinkable water or juices may be obtained from fruits such as the coconut and guava. Coconuts are the most reliable tropical source of pure water. Green nuts are better than the ripe ones for both water content and food value." (Merrill, page 288)

"Bamboo stems sometimes have water in the hollow joints. Shake the stems of old, yellowish bamboo. If you hear a gurgling sound, cut a notch at the base of each joint and catch the water in a container or drink directly from the notch." (Merrill, page 288)

"Sugar cane can be found in uninhabited jungle and looks like a cornstalk about ten feet high, though it can grow taller. Ripe cane contains a sweet juice that can be sucked out once the outer layer of the stem is peeled away." (Merrill, page 294)

"Water can be a problem even in a rainforest. Some jungles are very arid, others have a dry and wet season. Securing water in a jungle can be a serious problem during a dry season. Therefore, you may have to depend on some type of water-yielding plants, such as vines or boiled like potatoes, although the scraped fruit can be eaten raw." (Merrill, pages 293-294)

"Cacti...A few of the larger and thicker plants are filled with enough watery sweetish juice to be vital under survival conditions for quenching thirst." (Angier, page 48) Comment of mine: I have gotten lots of water out of many herbs, bushes, cacti, and trees. If any reader has ever juiced carrots, celery, beets, or other plants in a juice machine, he/she has found the plant has enough water to quench anyone's thirst if enough has been made. In the city and outside the city, in the "wild", I have just used my chewing with my teeth to juice any plant I desire to receive as much water as I could ever want. All I need is patience which there is alot more of in the "wild". The reader thus never needs to go anywhere worrying about enough water to have anymore!

"What is the value of birch sap? It can be used as a pure source of water in an emergency, although it is unwise to drink large quantities due to its sugar content. It is especially good in place of water for wild tea infusions." (Mears, page 56)

"…succeed in obtaining freshwater from fish,…algae, or rain,.." (Maniguet, page 140)

"Kangaroo rats…These unusual mice do not deserve the name of "rat" no matter how one looks at them, for they are the most charming little animals you can find. Their long tails and big hind feet, along with the small front feet, give them the name of "kangaroo." They make friendly and interesting pets, and are easy to capture. When you drive into their desert habitats at night they will hop across the road in your head light beams. All you need do is to stop and pick them up by their convenient tails and put them into a cage. It is easy to feed them; they will eat seeds of several kinds, especially wheat. For moisture all they ask is a carrot, for in their desert surroundings they probably never taste water." (Booth, page 118)

From Fish:

"Many people who succeed in catching fish, sometimes in large numbers, do not eat them because they have no water. Adapting diet to water reserves is a good principle, but fish are a food source that contains a large quantity of endogenous water (60 to 80 percent, depending on the species). Alain bombard survived for 24 days drinking exclusively seawater and fish juices…up to 15 ounces of water per 2.2 pounds of fish can be extracted…musscle masses must be cut into cubes…should be wrapped in a piece of linen or a garment which is twisted to squeeze out the juice…it is better to use a shirt than an absorbent towel!" (Maniguet, pages 142-143)

"The proportion of water in fish runs so particularly high that at sea, except when large enough emergency water supplies can be secured from ice or rain, fish are the most dependable source...Water can be obtained from freshly caught fish in several different ways. The most fundamental method is to divide the flesh into small portions and to chew each of these thoroughly, expectorating all solid matter before going on to the next morsel. The fish can also be sectioned and twisted within a cloth, the thus freed juice either being sucked up or caught." (Angier, pages 100-101) Comments of mine: This quotation is an excellent example of how to obtain water anywhere on the earth since water can also be extracted from the grasses that are found in deserts, valleys, mountains, etc. in this manner. It is interesting to note that nourishment, food, can be had by swallowing the fish and grass solid matter. It is also interesting to note that there is nourishment even in the extracted juices alone of both the fish and the grasses. From all the books, classes on outdoor living, personal experience and studies on the subject of grasses for about forty years now, I have never found mention of any poisonous grasses anywhere. The only poisonous grasses are the poison put on grasses when they are sprayed with insecticides and weed killers, etc. If any reader knows of a poisonous grass please let me know!

"…succeed in obtaining freshwater from fish,…algae, or rain,.." (Maniguet, page 140)

From Snow and even glaciers:

"Snow is safe for use as drinking water, even though it contains the same chemical pollutants as modern rain. The biggest drawback to using melted snow as a source of water is that its volume is about three times as great as water; a gallon bucket filled with snow will yield just over a quart of water." (McDougall, page 93)

"Even when compacted, snow only produces 10 to 15 percent of its volume as water, which means that a person has to ‘work’ a volume of 10.5 quarts of snow to get 1 quart of water." (Maniguet, page 286)

"Perhaps, too, a glacier or permanent snowbank may furnish refreshment...Clean snow may be eaten any time one is thirsty. The only precaution that ever need be taken is to treat it like ice cream and not put down too much at once when overheated or chilled" (Angier, pages 95 and 97) Comment of mine: So many times have I enjoyed the refreshing water from snow. I am just cautious that I take it from a clean area where no animal may have urinated on it. I am also cautious that it is a warm enough day so that the cold snow on melting in my mouth does not take away my precious body heat. Sometimes I have taken a jar that I have filled with snow and put it inside my sleeping bag at night in a place away from my body and drink the melted snow which has turned into warm water when I awaken in the morning. I have also heated snow over a fire at a safe distance to melt it to desired temperature.

"When facing a survival situation in cold weather, never eat snow. The survivalist who has spent three or four days in frozen, snow covered terrain will find his body adapting quickly, acclimating itself to the the cold. But this change isn’t without cost. As his body adapts it will burn more energy and require more calories to sustain a normal temperature. Calories and fat are vitally important to someone stranded in cold weather, and eating snow will only make his body work even harder. Always melt snow or ice with the campfire, and always try to drink warmed or hot water in sub-freezing temperatures." (McDougall, page 93)

"Ice is more compact in volume than snow and is therefore your best bet for melting. Snow is such an effective insulator and absorber of moisture that aluminum billycans (cook pots) stuffed full of snow have been known to burn through before the snow melts." (Mears, page 198)

"...almost always a small pan to heat water, or melt snow..." (McPherson, page 202) Comments of mine: If you find yourself out in the "wild" you can make your own container as is shown in the chapter on Food Containers. Sometimes I have made a depression in a soft rock and heated it over the fire that melts the snow or warms the water. The depression can be small or larger depending on how much water you want.

"Slow snow melter…Traditionally a sealskin bag, improvise using a T-shirt with sleeves tied. Fill with snow and suspend in warmth of shelter; as snow melts, water drips into receptable below." (Mears, page 199)

"You can unfreeze frozen puddles with hot rocks. Collect, filter and purify the water before consumption." (Mears, page 199)

From Rivers, Lakes, Streams, Oceans Etc.:

"Be sure that drinking water from well, spring, or brook is pure. If not, purify it, or bring in water in covered containers." (Lynn, page 43)

"Ocean ice loses its salt so rapidly that ice one year old is nearly fresh, and ice formed two or more years before cannot be distinguished as far as taste goes from river ice unless waves have been breaking over it recently or spray has been dousing it." (Angier, page 99)

"Freshwater springs are always a good bet when one needs clean drinking water. Springs are often quite plentiful in wooded lowlands, and especially near rivers or larger streams…Springs are always small and fast-flowing, which precludes infestation by snails or other parasite carriers, and because the water is filtered through millions of tons of earth, rock and gravel, the only impurities left in it are natural minerals…When taking water from a freshwater spring, always go to its point of origin, the place where it comes out of the ground. This water will be cold and clean enough to drink or cook with just as it is. The same may not hold true farther downstream." (McDougall, page 92)

"When you come upon a water hole, stream, or any other body of water in hot, arid country, never lie on your belly to drink from it, and absolutely never throw yourself into the water with the wild abandon depicted in Holywood movies. A sudden cooling of the body after exposing it to hours of heat and dehydration can cause a state of shock severe enough to cause unconsciousness. It’s one of life’s bitter ironies that people dying of thirst in the desert have found water only to drown in it. The safest way of drinking directly from a waterhole or stream is to kneel and use a cupped hand or canteen cup to raise it to the mouth." (McDougall, page 97)

From Rain:

"Rain is still a safe source of drinking water that the desert survivalist especially will want to make the most of…even a quick downpour will be sufficient to fill the canteen." (McDougall, page 97)

"Use every means available to catch and store rain water." (Paladin Press, page 180)

"Rain has always been a good water source, and it still is, even though pollution and toxic emissions have added chemicals to it that it never contained before. Rainwater is at least as clean as urban tapwater, and is definitely a safer bet than swampwater, so the survivalist should be prepared to take advantage of this boon from above." (McDougall, page 92)

"…succeed in obtaining freshwater from fish,…algae, or rain,.." (Maniguet, page 140)

From Dew:

"Dew is an often overlooked source of water in arid areas. Even the most sun-scorched desert has some degree of humidity, but during the heat of the day that moisture will be in the form of vapor, which is useless to a thirsty traveler. At night the cloudless skies that are the trademark of desert areas will do nothing to prevent the day’s heat from escaping into the atmosphere, and temperatures will drop precipitously. The sudden drop in temperature will cause the water vapors to condense and gather on the surface of rocks where they can be collected with a dog rag. When the dog rag becomes saturated with dew, simply wring it out into the canteen cup and gather more. A gull day’s supply of water can be gathered in this way. The dewfall will be at its maximum during the early morning hours—from 3:00AM to sunrise—and this is the best time to gather dew." (McDougall, page 93)

"Dew can be collected on the inside of the raft canopy during the night. This will not produce much water but every bit counts" (Paladin Press, page 180)

"If you are on a long trip and expect to have difficulty finding plentiful supplies of water during the day, choose a shady camp site. In the morning, make the effort to rise early so that you can mop up dew with your bandana and squeeze it out into a receptacle." (Mears, page 89)

From The Ocean:

"The question of whether or not sea water can safely be drunk has long been debated…Even at its most salty, sea water contains 3.5 ounces of salt per quart (100 grams per liter), and adding a glass of sea water to a liter of fresh water will produce a liquid with the same osmotic pressure as beer, for example! The intake of sea water can be beneficial under certain circumstances. Experience and experiment have shown that: Sea water should be drunk before you start to feel thirsty. Once conditions have deteriorated so far that drinking it is necessary (lack of reserves of fresh water and no prospects of rain in the near future), the intake should correspond with the maximum daily need for sodium chloride, i.e., about 1 pint of sea water containing 35 grams of sodium chloride per liter per day. Intake should be divided up into about 10 portions, of two to three mouthfuls each day. It should be limited to no more than five to seven days if drunk constantly, to avoid the danger of exceeding the limits of renal function. If, after this length of time, you succeed in obtaining fresh water from fish,…algae, or rain, you can again drink sea water in small doses for another cycle of five to seven days." (Maniguet, page 140)

How to Find Water:

By Looking for Lots of Green Vegetation:

"Water is also prone to lie near the base of hills, where it can many times be distinguished in distant ravines and canyons by the intensity of vegetation." (Angier, page 95)

"When country is flat and open, long meandering tangles of such brush and shrubs as alder and willow tell us all their familiar story." (Angier, page 95)

By Looking for Special Kinds of Plants:

"If you happen upon a palm, you can depend on water being at hand, generally within several feet of the base of the tree. Reed grass is also a sound sign that moisture is near." (Angier, pages 96-97)

"Mushrooms cannot be found everywhere. Apart from a few species that have adapted to the desert, they need high humidity, so the argument that they should be looked for and gathered because of their high water content is gratuitous. Nevertheless, wherever edible mushrooms grow there is also water: in the crevices among rocks, in hollows in the trees." (Maniguet, page 258)

By Looking For Animal Game Trails, Etc.:

"Game trails very often indicate the presence of water, a usually reliable indication being a marked increase and a progressive deepening and widening thereof. If we want water, what we will do of course is follow these." (Angier, pages 95-96)

"Grain-eating birds need water and subsequently are never far from it. The presence of many large mammals is also an indicator of likely water availability." (Mears, page 89)

By Looking for Special Places in Dry Streams and Lakes:

"Perhaps you'll come across the thin shallow bed of a stream. Even though it is dry, water may lie beneath the surface. Hunt for a low place in the cut and dig. The same procedure may be followed in the case of dry lake bottoms. The presence of any water will soon be indicated by damp sand." (Angier, page 96)

"Water prefers to take the route of least resistance downhill. So you need to look for places along its route where it becomes trapped: hollows in rocks or trees, depressions in clay, boggy areas, shaded gullies and canyons or fissures in rock where water can only trickle through." (Mears, page 88)

By Looking At Other Places:

"Good places to search for water are at the base of cliffs or among natural declivities on gently sloping hillsides. On the coastline you can find water trickling from sea cliffs; or dig for it behind sand dunes above the tide line. Narrow shady canyons and rock clefts are also good areas to search." (Mears, page 89)

"Digging for water…Water in moist areas or at the base of runoffs can often be reached by digging a hole and allowing the water to seep into it. This water can be pure but is best filtered and boiled." (Mears, page 89)

"…you can squeeze the moisture from damp mud using your bandanna. If you are on a long trip and expect to have difficulty finding plentiful supplies of water during the day, choose a shady camp site. In the morning, make the effort to rise early so that you can mop up dew with your bandana and squeeze it out into a receptacle." (Mears, page 89)

How to Preserve Water in Your Body:

"Never try to conserve water through abstainence. Some desert travelers have been found dead from thirst with a half-full canteen strapped to their sides. Heat exhaustion and stroke can hit quickly, rendering a victim unconscious without warning. When that happens things can only get worse, and the individual who loses consciousness in the midday sun may never wake up again. The best place to carry water is in the stomach; a canteen should only be used to carry water that won’t fit there." (McDougall, page 95)

"Preserving water in the body is equally as important as consuming water. Following are important rules: a. If no water is available--do not eat. The process of digestion, particularly proteins, requires water to assimilate. b. In hot climates reduce the loss of body water through perspiration as much as possible. Remain inactive. Remain in shade as much as possible. c. Sleep and rest will minimize loss of body fluids.....e. Do not drink alcohol as it dehydrates the body. f. Smoking increases thirst so if you must smoke do so during the evenings or nights. g. To decrease the desire to drink, suck on a button or piece of cloth. This increase the saliva in the mouth." (Paladin Press, pages 180-181) Comment of mine: Of course there is water everywhere within the grasses so that all the above is not necessary! If you find yourself at sea, then seaweed has all the water you need. Both grass and seaweed also have an abundance of nutrition!

Cups to Drink with:

 

"Traditionally carried by backwoods fold, a noggin (cup) is carved from a burl; carve while the wood is still green…" (Mears, page 205)

"Carving a depression is easy; make four quarter-cuts, each working with grain rather than against it." (Mears, page 207)

"Smooth work-piece by scraping with back of knife." (Mears, page 207)

"A round piece of bark, first soaked if necessary to render it sufficiently pliable, can be tucked in once to provide a conical cup." (Angier, page 84)

Purification of Water:

By Distilling The Water:

"Distilling. This is the best method to recover clean water, provided the equipment is clean." (Eduardo, page 3)

"SOLAR STILL...Dig a hole 3 feet on a side and 3 feet deep. Set heavy plastic sheet over the hole, anchor edge with rocks. Place one rock in center, over cup. Fill pit with wet leaves. Use drink tube to avoid having to dismantle...place in sunny area..." (Eduardo, page 3)

By Boiling The Water:

"The easiest method of killing infectious organisms in water is by heating it to the boiling point…212 degrees Fahrenheit. Boiling will kill any harmful organisms that might be living in the water, making it safe for cooking, drinking, or bathing wounds…In real life, four or five minutes is sufficient to remove any danger." (McDougall, page 85)

"The easiest and most practical way to sterilize doubtful water, if you have a campfire, is to boil it. At or near sea level, hard boiling for five minutes will do the job. For every additional thousand feet of altitude, a safe all-around precaution is to increase the boiling time one minute." (Angier, book 5, page 107)

"Water can be rid of germs by boiling...a safe general rule is to boil questionable water at least five minutes." (Angier, page 91)

"But keep in mind that the amount of heat required to bring water to boiling will decrease as the elevation increases. Water heated at or below sea level will feel extremely hot before it reaches the boiling point, but water heated on a high mountain-side may boil furiously and still not be too hot to touch. At high elevations—and thus decreased atmospheric pressure—it may be necessary to cover the container with a loose-fitting lid to artificially increase the pressure against the water." (McDougall, page 85)

"A common complaint from those who drink boiled water is that it tastes flat and somewhat metallic. The reason for this phenomenon is that boiling removes most of the oxygen from water. There are two ways to at least partially alleviate this problem. One is to boil the water with a large piece of charcoal (taken from the campfire bed) in the bottom of a metal container, and the other is to shake the cooled water vigorously in a half-filled, closed canteen to re-aerate it. The water will still taste boiled, but much of the flatness will be gone." (McDougall, pages 85-86)

Qualities of Boiled Water:

"Boiled water, as everyone knows, tastes flat because air has been driven from it by heat. Air and therefore taste can be restored by pouring the cooled water back and forth between two utensils or by shaking it in a partially filled jar or canteen." (Angier, page 91)

Sweetening Water:

"One evening we may make camp in a swamp or by a pond which has an unpleasant odor. It will be handy in such a contingency to know how to sweeten and purify water in a single operation. This we can usually accomplish by dropping several bits of charred hardwood from the campfire into the boiling pot. Fifteen or twenty minutes of simmering will usually do the job. One of us can then skim away most of the foreign matter, and then either strain the water by pouring it through a clean cloth or, if we've plenty of time and utensils, merely allow it to settle." (Angier, page 95)

Containers for water:

"To make a primitive basin, one handy way is to scoop a hole in soft ground and to line that with a piece of waterproof canvas, plastic, or something similar." (Angier, page 104)

Hot Water Making:

 

"Do we want hot water? Then we already know about scattering a few clean pebbles along the bottom of the water-filled receptacle and placing on these, perhaps with temporary tongs made by bending a green stick back up itself, stones that have been heating in the campfire." (Angier, page 104)

Special Use of Water After Cooking:

"Years later I learned that, to avoid bitterness, dandelion leaves are best if picked before the heat of the day and from plants that have not yet produced flowers that season. Leaves from plants in bloom or from those that have finished blooming are not harmful, simply more bitter, and much of the bitterness can be removed by boiling and draining off the cooking water. (Don't discard the cooking water--drink it as a nutritious tonic or use it to water plants.) Also, choose light-colored leaves; the darker green ones are more bitter." (Young, page 18)

Weather, Types Of

"But if the weather is foul, or if it suddenly turns foul, he will need to find shelter from the elements. Again, if he can avoid expending the energy necessary to build a conventional shelter he should do it. There are several types of emergency shelters that can be built quickly—usually in less than 30 minutes—that will provide adequate protection for the night." (McDougall, page 61)

"And when you awake in the morning, there is the sky to study for weather hints and the surrounding country to scan." (Angier, book 5, page 65)

Cold Weather:

"If the weather is cold but clear he can lay his bed in a ravine or some other natural depression that offers good protection from the wind, using the sides as reflectors for his campfire." (McDougall, page 61)

"The debris hut can be built from start to finish in well under three hours, and provides more protection from the elements than a tent or most other emergency shelters. I can personally vouch for its lifesaving capability. Even without a fire, the sealed debris hut will keep a lost or stranded woodsman alive through several days of arctic weather with wind chill factors under fifty degrees below zero Fahrenheit." (McDougall, page 53)

"The wind causes a thinner layer of snow cover on the windward slope and a thicker layer on the leeward slope because swirls sometimes decrease the thickness on some combes by several yards…Therefore, if one must walk, it is safer to do so on the windward side." (Maniguet, pages 323-324)

"In cold-weather emergencies people often forget that they can greatly increase the insulation of their clothing by stuffing their clothes with dry grasses or mosses. This is what northern native people have done for hundreds of years. It may be a little itchy if you have to use the less soft stuffings, but it may keep you alive." (Mears, page 190)

"No matter where you go, you’ll do well to take the best of outdoor clothing, bought specifically for where you’re going. The neatest trick I know of for cold-country comfort lies in some of the insulative underwears." (Angier, book 5, page 94)

"In foul weather—namely subzero winter blizzards—I recommend foregoing a fire altogether and sealing the entrance with a thick mat of woven branches. Sealed thus, the debris hut is impervious to even the worst weather and retains the sleeper’s body heat like a cocoon. There will be very little air circulation through the woven door (Just enough to breathe), and that means that nearly all of the heat generated inside will remain inside to keep the occupant warm." (McDougall, page 53)

"Cold weather is undoubtedly the most common life threatening condition anyone in a survival situation will face. Wind and freezing temperatures have caused the deaths of more woodsmen than all other factors combined, primarily because the average outdoor recreationalist is unprepared to weather a winter storm." (McDougall, page 46)

"A fire used to heat a shelter should be positioned directly in front of the shelter entrance, about four feet away, and surrounded on three sides by reflectors. The reflectors will impede the circulation of cold outside air and focus the heat from the fire directly on the door of the shelter. With this configuration, the stranded woodsman on a thick insulating bed inside the shelter will be comfortable even in a subzero blizzard." (McDougall, page 48)

"The difficulty at the subzero temperatures encountered on some winter trails in the high country is not so much keeping warm, but doing so without too much weight and constraint while maintaining body ventilation…The considerably more expensive elderdown, being lighter and more compressible, is even better…The easiest way to give this an assist in ordinary cold going is just unzip the garment—as much and for as long as comforable. I find this satisfactory in temperatures ranging from fifty degrees below zero up to about zero." (Angier, book 5, pages 94-95)

"Choose clothing that meets the demands of the worst weather you are likely to encounter. Your head and neck are a critical area for heat loss, so always make certain you have a woolly hat with you. All of my outdoors jackets are equipped with integral hoods…Hoods trap the warmth around your neck and head." (Mears, page 190)

"Even a big tree with thick foliage will ward off a lot of weather. One of the easiest and best overnight niches can be quickly made, as a matter of fact, by stripping off enough lower branches from a short, thick evergreen to form a small cubbyhole. These branches, supplemented with more from other trees, can be used to make a soft, dry flooring and to thatch the roof and sides….If a storm has settled in heavily, a few pieces of birch bark or similar forest material will shed a lot of moisture. If the dusk that is dropping quickly over the forest is bringing a deepening cold, try to select your site in a thick clump of small trees. If possible, let it be halfway down the lee slope of a hill, as this is the warmest spot in most country." (Angier, book 5, page 67)

Rainy, Wet, Windy Weather:

"Wet, rainy weather can be every bit as dangerous as freezing weather, even though temperatures may be well above freezing. A cold downpour on a sixty-degree day will literally wash away its victim’s body heat, leaving him wet, cold, and ill prepared for the sudden drop in temperature that’s sure to come after the sun sets.. Most experienced woodsmen agree that the best clothing for retaining body heat in wet weather is made from wool…only wool will keep you warm when you’re soaking wet." (McDougall, page 46)

"The poncho…is best for foul-weather wear. It is useful for ground-sheet, shelter, and other trail functions. When it is worn during rain, it is loose enough to permit ventilation. This looseness can be a problem on a windy day, but it is far preferable to encasing the body in closely fitting rainwear that would soon have you wet with perspiration." (Angier, book 5, page 93)

"The simplest and handiest thing to take along for mixing and working purposes around food is a thin sheet of plastic. This can be easily washed, quickly refolded, and conveniently carried from one camping spot to another. In fact, one of the most convenient things for each individual to carry when hiking is a thin sheet of lightweight plastic, perhaps five feet by seven feet. This will quickly fold into bandana handkerchief size, small enough for the pocket of a shirt. It can be drawn over one’s head and shoulders as protection against wind and rain, laid atop the lower boughs of a tree as shelter from a storm, spread on the ground as an eating surface, and used as a clean waterproof wrapping for a string of sleek bright trout." (Angier, book 5, page 114)

"The simplest form of shelter is merely a large sheet of plastic which, if it is of light material, will fold and stow handily in a breast pocket. These are so convenient to carry, as a matter of fact, that I always have one with me when I go into the woods. With such protection, even in a downpour you can boil the kettle and have lunch while remaining comfortable and dry. It is easy, too, to improvise a sleeping shelter. A plastic sheet quickly waterproofs a pile of equipment, and protects it from the heavy dews often encountered even on fair nights." (Angier, book 5, page 63)

"A fifteen-ounce poncho, 5 ½ by 7 ½ feet, which folds into a pocket-sized wad, will keep even the backpacker’s knees dry in wet going in the open, and will ward off chilly wind along the ridges. It will also quickly waterproof a makeshift lean-to shelter. On nights when you prefer to sleep beneath the stars, this poncho will protect your sleeping bag from ground damp. (Take a light mosquito bar into country where you may need one.)" (Angier, book 5, page 63)

"If a storm has settled in heavily, a few pieces of birch bark or similar forest material will shed a lot of moisture. If the dusk that is dropping quickly over the forest is bringing a deepening cold, try to select your site in a thick clump of small trees. If possible, let it be halfway down the lee slope of a hill, as this is the warmest spot in most country." (Angier, book 5, page 67)

Snow:

"Snow in and of itself is probably the least threatening weather condition. In fact, a 20-degree day with snow on the ground will seem noticeably warmer than the same day without snow. The same insulating qualities that make a snow-filled forest so quiet will also make it feel warmer. Snow can actually be used to protect oneself against the dangers of cold weather because it’s abundant, easy to work with, and entirely effective for manufacturing windproof walls and roofs. The most serious danger from the snow is its brightness, which can cause a debilitating-if temporary-affliction known as ‘snow blindness,’ especially in bright sunlight. Snow blindness should always be guarded against by wearing sunglasses or a brimmed hat to shade the eyes. If neither of these is available, fashion emergency goggles by tying around your head a broad strip of birch bark with narrow eye slits cut into it." (McDougall, page 46)

Sunny Weather:

"On the reverse end of the spectrum, the sun can be as dangerous as any other weather condition. Prolonged exposure to a hot sun can cause dehydration, heat exhaustion, and finally, heat stroke." (McDougall, page 47)

"The emergency dugout is a warm-weather shelter meant to be used in temperatures above freezing. Its construction is simple and quick; just find a hill with a steep slope on its leeward side and begin digging a low, horizontal slot wide enough and high enough to accommodate the sleeper’s body. The excavated hole should be approximately two feet from bottom to top, seven feet in length, and should extend into the hillside about three feet. The floor of the shelter should be kept at least six inches above ground level to keep out running water. When the shelter is finished, with a thick bed of insulating material on the floor, there should be just enough room for the sleeper to crawl inside and have enough space to roll over. The back wall and ceiling will help to reflect the heat from a campfire placed at the entrance…I’ve yet to have one of these shelters actually cave in, and if one of them did it would be little more than an irritation…Remember skunks, opossums, marmots, and dozens of other creatures live in excavated burrows—when was the last time you heard about one of them suffocating in a cave-in?" (McDougall, page 62)

"In warm weather a thick bed of dried leaves, grass, ferns, or even pine needles will provide enough insulation and warmth to allow him a good night’s sleep." (McDougall, page 61)

Wine

"Elderberry (Sambucus nigra)…Wine-makers’ favorite; can be gathered quickly; dry and add to baked goodies." (Mears, page 131)

"A better known and more ardent beverage made from this versatile plant is Dandelion Wine…Gather 1 gallon of dandelion flowers on a dry day. Put these in a 2-gallon crock and pour 1 gallon of boiling water over them. Cover the jar and allow the flowers to steep for 3 days. Strain through a jelly cloth so you can squeeze all the liquid from the flowers. Put the liquid in a kettle, add 1 small ginger root, the thinly pared peels and the juice of 3 oranges and 1 lemon. Stir in 3 pounds of sugar and boil gently for 20 minutes. Return the liquid to the crock and allow it to cool until barely lukewarm. Spread ½ cake of yeast on a piece of toasted rye bread and float it on top. Cover the crock with a cloth and keep in a warm room for 6 days. Then strain off the wine into a gallon jug, corking it loosely with a wad of cotton. Keep in a dark place for 3 weeks, then carefully decant into a bottle and cap or cork tightly. Don’t touch it until…(December)…or later." (Gibbons, pages 81-82)

"The skin automatically begins to shut off surface blood circulation when exposed to cold. It can thus decrease the heat loss from the skin by as much as a fourth of normal loss. Alcohol, it so happens, prevents this natural thermostat from functioning properly, at the same time bringing about such rapid and sometimes dangerous heat losses that the backpacker may be deluded into believing himself warmed and stimulated. Wind, as well as low temperature, produces chilling and accelerated dissipation of body warmth." (Angier, book 5, page 47)

 

Wood

"The soft inner core of a dead tree is always the first part to rot away, leaving a solid outer shell. These hollow stumps and logs are plentiful in almost every forest or swamp and are easy to break into slabs that can be used as shingles. A firm pull or kick against the side of a hollow stump will break off a large section of slightly curved wood. A couple dozen of these will be sufficient to cover the roof of a small one-man survival shelter. Large slabs of loose outer bark also make good shingle material." (McDougall, pages 53-54)

Mental Survival

"…man has the ability to plan his way out of a precarious state of affairs. The same capacity for logic and ingenuity that allowed Homo sapiens to become master of his environment also gives him an unsurpassed aptitude for survival, an ability to think abstractly, effectively utilize the materials at hand, and adapt to almost any set of conditions. Since panic is a non-cerebral function, it can be most effectively controlled by maintaining a logical approach to the task of staying alive. The first thing the survivalist must do is make himself as comfortable as possible. The critical thinking portion of the mind is seriously hampered by physical discomfort, so the survivalist needs to address the requirements of his body before attempting to devise an escape plan." (McDougall, page 43)

"As with all other aspects of survival, imagination and ingenuity are the keys to success." (McDougall, page 45)

"When one says, in effect, that he will refuse to touch any food for which he did not acquire a taste in early childhood, he is showing symptoms of mental and emotional hardening of the arteries." (Gibbons, page 5)

"In recent years many advances have been made in the development of clothing, equipment, and rations for survival and of techniques for their use. However, regardless of how good equipment is or how good the techniques for its use are, the man faced with a survival situation still has himself to deal with. Man's psychological reactions to the stresses of survival often make him unable to utilize his available resources." (Paladin Press, page 11)

"When your appetite is sharpened by the sort of outdoor living for which human beings were made, the mealtimes can include some of the best moments of any vacation…" (Angier, book 5, page 154) Comment of mine: Outdoor living truly is part of the pleasure that God has made us to enjoy! In any situation you find yourself in, just going outdoors in a safe place is comforting to the mind, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually. God has given us many gifts such as the outdoors, appetites, good food, good friends, etc., just put as many of these together in various combinations to really individually enjoy your own created life.

"Anyone who merely happens to stray from his way is seldom faced with much of an external problem although internal conflicts may become considerable, for the brain of man can impose very alarming obstacles where none have been placed by nature. These mental and therefore all the more unnerving obstructions are under such circumstances most often the immediate results of either panic or pride, the first of which will sometimes set the ordinarily most rational of men running crazily, while the second can at the least spur him to continue blundering aimlessly after dark when there may be real danger of injury." (Angier, book 4, page 175)

"Survival depends on clear thinking and resourcefulness. The main things to remember are---keep calm, think, try to help each other, keep together, keep warm." (Desert Publications, page 80)

"This is a highly individual matter, although it is generally flexible enough to be moderated to fit a party’s average rate of travel. The main thing is not to press. The best test of an ideal pace is that you hold it all day. This does not mean that you’ll necessarily walk at the same speed for the entire day. In the chill of the morning, I personally like to go out fast to keep warm rather than to burden myself with extra clothing that will become too hot later on. After lunch, I usually have another spurt of energy, slackening off in the afternoon until the thoughts of that next camp quicken my steps again along toward the end of that particular hiking day. The main thing is not to make a chore out of any of it, but rather to see what’s happening about you and to enjoy yourself to the fullest along the way." (Angier, book 5, page 135)

"Snakes serve as a reminder to us to search for understanding rather than fearing in ignorance." (Mears, page 83)

"But human rationality would be useless if we could not gather enough information to reason with." (Mears, page 96)

"Yet without the positive psychological traits to handle pain, fear, loneliness, boredom, fatigue, and thirst, all the preparation and physical attributes are next to useless." (Paladin Press, page 7)

"Sure, rough it if you want to prove to yourself the (actually very important) fact that you can rough it. One day, it’s true, anyone at all may be thrown entirely upon his own resources and forced to get along the best he can with a minimum of bodily comfort. But as far as the preference goes, roughing it is a development stage. Once we’ve successfully tested our ability to take it, a whole lot of doubts and inhibitions disappear. We find ourselves realizing that the real challenge lies in smoothing it. We come to appreciate that making it easy on ourselves takes a lot more experience and ingenuity than bulling it through the tough way." (Angier, book 5, pages 136-137)

"There are right and wrong things to do when an emergency arises, and you've learned the right things to do--and how to avoid the wrong ones. It all begins before you start out. You take out success insurance by planning ahead." (Merrill, page 7)

"Ironically, it is the present condition of our environment that makes an understanding of primitive technology essential. Most of us have forgotten the basic skills required to support human life and have become dependent on high technology. There is a psychological loss in not understanding our relationship to the natural world. But our dependence also means that we are in danger if our technology should ever fail. War, plague, and famine still exist, and our own society is only one more in a long list of cultural experiments." (Goodchild, page 6)

"When you find yourself in a survival situation there are several facts which you should remember. The most important fact is that the obstacles you have to overcome are not so much geographical and physical ones, but mental obstacles. No matter how well prepared you are, you will probably never completely convince yourself that it can happen to you. But, as the records show, it can. So, you should understand what these psychological obstacles are before you start collecting survival facts and information." (Jamison, page 148)

"Two of the gravest general dangers to survival are concessions to comfort and having a passive outlook. These dangers must be recognized because of their general implications and their relation to the specific survival stresses. Both dangers represent attitudes which follow lines of least resistance, and overrule your effort or desire to cope with stress. Both dangers represent attitudes of primary concern with the immediate situation rather than the overall problems of survival. To survive successfully, you must be able to master both of these tendencies. Reason is the key to this change of attitude--reason which identifies discomfort as a temporary problem in comparison with the tremendous advantage of endurance." (Jamison, page 149) Comment of mine: Here we see that the primary or most important concern must be the survival of the major purpose of life that nothing must destroy which is to practice being a partaker of the Divine Nature, of becoming who you were meant to become. This requires the correct attitude or approach to the situation in order to achieve this spiritual or relationship goal. And reasoning, using our mental qualities such as logic instead of fear, must flow within the confines of the spiritual Qualities which all must work together to produce the grand, major, awesome purpose of being born, to be a partaker of the Divine Nature so that we may be a member of the Divine Family of God! How this all fits together in our individual lives is explained in my book, Be At Home Forever. You may have a copy by sending $20.00 plus $3.00 for postage and handling to Advanced Health Techniques, 3307 S. College, #200, Fort Collins, Co. 80525.

"Anyone having sufficient fat meat to warrant the sacrifice of some nutriment in exchange for the psychological stimulus of a barbecue may want to allow a hardwood blaze to crumble to embers in a pit, over which green poles can then be spread and slabs of meat lain." (Angier, page 83)

" Before you begin construction make certain that you are building a shelter that will shield you from the prevailing conditions. Most important of all, make a mental note to build the shelter right the first time." (Mears, page 39)

Emotional Survival

"Panic is the mortal enemy of anyone in a survival situation. It can and does cause people to do things that are counterproductive to their survival…man has the ability to plan his way out of a precarious state of affairs." (McDougall, page 43)

"Snakes serve as a reminder to us to search for understanding rather than fearing in ignorance." (Mears, page 83)

"When one says, in effect, that he will refuse to touch any food for which he did not acquire a taste in early childhood, he is showing symptoms of mental and emotional hardening of the arteries." (Gibbons, page 5)

"Cooking is a skill of great importance, for food and morale are inextricably linked." (Mears, page 134)

"My first taste of dandelion was when I was a child and a neighbor invited me over to share some 'spring greens.' We sat in her porch swing, each of us with a small bowl. I remember how very good the greens tasted and how wonderfully secure I felt to realize that if I were ever lost and without food there were plants, all around me, that could be eaten. I don't suppose that children today would think about such things, but it was the Depression then and even young children were aware of the hard times. I have long since forgotten the name of that kind and interesting woman, but often I have wished I could thank her for helping me begin a lifetime of enjoying wild plants and their uses." (Young, page 18)

"Mental obstacles all fall under the general heading of that... common emotion called FEAR. Fear of the unknown, fear of discomfort, fear of your own weaknesses; and, in many cases, even though these other fears are overcome to some extent, a lack of confidence in their own fortitude and ability has broken people who could otherwise have fared much better." (Jamison, page 148) Comment of mine: Fear can paralyze your love for yourself and your neighbor. Staying strong emotionally, as well as mentally, spiritually, and physically, depends on our ability to stay steadfast in true love since perfect love casts out all fear. The reader can overcome all fear by doing all the Qualities of True Love found in I Corinthians 13. I highly recommend memorizing these Qualities of Love and practicing them for they give true purpose to your life being a vital part of the Divine Nature that we are all to partake of as found in II Peter 1. Again, all these Qualities of Love and Divine Nature can be studied in detail by reading the book, Be At Home Forever, which can be ordered by sending $20.00 plus $3.00 for postage and handling to Advanced Health Techniques, 3307 South College, Suite #200, Fort Collins, Colorado 80525.

 

"Cacti...A few of the larger and thicker plants are filled with enough watery sweetish juice to be vital under survival conditions for quenching thirst." (Angier, page 48) Comment of mine: I have gotten lots of water out of many herbs, bushes, cacti, and trees. If any reader has ever juiced carrots, celery, beets, or other plants in a juice machine, he/she has found the plant has enough water to quench anyone's thirst if enough has been made. In the city and outside the city, in the "wild", I have just used my chewing with my teeth to juice any plant I desire to receive as much water as I could ever want. All I need is patience which there is alot more of in the "wild". The reader thus never needs to go anywhere worrying about enough water to have anymore! This is excellent for emotional survival!

"Much of the success of a hiking trip, as well as a considerable deal of the pleasure, is going to depend on your having the right kinds of cooking fires." (Angier, book 5, page 144)

"The crackle of your campfire takes on an unexpected coziness, and even the smallest tent all at once seems as snug and satisfying as a mansion." (Angier, book 5, page 154)

"Few aspects of camping are as important to morale as a good night’s sleep." (Mears, page 150)

"The pleasure to be derived from any trip into the farther places may be divided into three parts: the zest of getting ready, the journey itself, and the enjoyment of remembering." (Angier, book 5, page 98)

"This is a highly individual matter, although it is generally flexible enough to be moderated to fit a party’s average rate of travel. The main thing is not to press. The best test of an ideal pace is that you hold it all day. This does not mean that you’ll necessarily walk at the same speed for the entire day. In the chill of the morning, I personally like to go out fast to keep warm rather than to burden myself with extra clothing that will become too hot later on. After lunch, I usually have another spurt of energy, slackening off in the afternoon until the thoughts of that next camp quicken my steps again along toward the end of that particular hiking day. The main thing is not to make a chore out of any of it, but rather to see what’s happening about you and to enjoy yourself to the fullest along the way." (Angier, book 5, page 135)

"The reason so many people have such a hard time lighting a campfire is impatience." (McDougall, page 68)

"What remain most fondly in our mind after a wilderness hike are the campfires…The flames behind whose sanctuary you sit whle the darkening forest comes to life." (Angier, book 5, page 144)

Spiritual Survival

 

"In a nutshell, the secret to survival is to be kind to yourself. If you’re cold, build a fire; if you’re hungry, eat; and if you’re tired, rest. Believe in yourself and never doubt your own capabilities. All of us are born with an inherently powerful survival instinct. That, a few basic pieces of equipment, and a little bit of knowledge are all that will be required to emerge alive and healthy from the most challenging wilderness survival situation. Believe it." (McDougall, page 44)

"Proper attitude is also a vital part of the survival process. The way one perceives his situation is at least as important as his knowledge and skill. A successful survivalist is never lost, only momentarily perplexed…The woodsman who sees a sudden snowstorm as beautiful and natural has a far greater chance of staying alive than one who regards it as cold and dismal. If chickadees, squirrels and deer mice are able to sustain life through the worst conditions nature can offer, how can the well-prepared survivalist have any doubt in his own ability to do the same?" (McDougall, pages 43-44)

"The fact that this food costs nothing but the labor of gathering and preparing it will appeal to many. There is seldom a day in the year when wild food, in one form or another, does not grace our table, and I must admit that it helps to keep our budget wihin the bounds imposed by the income of a free-lance writer, but that is not the primary reason I seek it. Foraging to me, is a sport, a hobby and my chief source of recreation. One must approach wild food with the right attitude, both in the woods and on the table. Don’t try it solely as a means of economizing on food bills, when you hate the necessity for being economical. Unless you approach wild food with genuine interest and love, you will never become a skilled forager. If you dislike the activity of gathering and preparing these natural dainties, you will end up with an unpleasant-tasting mess that will satisfy only half your hunger." (Gibbons, page 4)

"The point is: no ordinary problem will stump any of us for very long if we possess sufficient enterprise and ingenuity to have a reasonable chance of surviving at all." (Angier, page 104)

"Good fellowship is at its best around good meals." (Angier, book 5, page 154)

"We live in a vastly complex society which has been able to provide us with a multitude of material things, and this is good, but people are beginning to suspect that we have paid a high spiritual price for our plenty. Each person would like to feel that he is an entity, a separate individual capable of independent existence, and this is hard to believe when everything that we eat, wear, live in, drive, use or handle has required the cooperative effort of literally millions of people to produce, process, transport, and, eventually, distribute to our hands. Man simply must feel that he is more than a mere mechanical part in this intricately interdependent industrial system. We enjoy the comfort and plenty which the highly organized production and distribution has brought us, but don’t we sometimes feel that we are living a secondhand sort of existence, and that we are in danger of losing all contact with the origins of life and the nature which nourishes it?" (Gibbons, pages 1-2)

"You may even happen that you and yours will be compelled to seek sanctuary in the wilderness because of those ever increasing threats to civilization itself..." (Angier, page 11)

"When someone is lost, if there is one essential any more important than another it is common sense, this to be exercised not only by the individual in difficulty but by his companions as well." (Angier, book 4, page 176)

"Take your pulse. In other words, check your attitude. It can get you in trouble. Are you so goal-oriented--to climb this peak or ski that bowl--that you are willing to take unwarranted risk? Are you so close to reaching your goal that you overlook clear and present danger signs? Are you letting group dynamics or peer pressure cloud good judgment? Are you letting haste or fatigue get you in trouble? To prevent accidents from happening, you must control the human factor in your decision-making." (Colorado Mountain Club, page 381)

"Perhaps the most significant observations of all my experience has been that no matter what a man or woman possesses materially, his survival depends solely on the quality of his personal life..." (Jamison, Richard and Linda's compilation, page 229) Comment of mine: Survival ultimately is dependent on quality of the person's spiritual life, how he/she loves not only the people around but also the self. The Bible says to love your neighbor as yourself. It is this practicing of the quality of love in our personal life, together with other qualities that are relationship oriented or spiritual, that makes up our quality of life that will go on even after this physical life. The spiritual has dominion over the physical possessions and the mental logic; and thus, it is the ultimate in our survival now and forever!

"We just go out there and love the kids. The more you love them, the faster they come around. We live with them, experience everything with them. A student is never asked to do anything an instructor isn't already doing." (Jamison, Richard and Linda, page 225) Comment of mine: In our Eternal Bill of Eternal Rights given to us by the True God, we all have the right to love and be loved. Love rejoices in the Truth (I Corinthians 13), never stopping its rejoicing since it knows our end result of being partakers of the Divine Nature (II Peter 1) no matter what trials we go through as long as we practice love in everything we do and think. Love is spiritual since it is what holds relationships together; the Bible calls it the perfect bond. We parents need to be the examples of love both in our doing and our words so that our children can learn to become love also. All this is explained in detail in my book on Be At Home Forever.

"Two kinds of violin spiders, the recluse and the laeta are found in the United States. The recluse is fairly widespread in the Midwest; its bite, though serious, is rarely fatal. The more dangerous laeta...native to South America, where, up to 1968, it had bitten 400 times and caused at least 35 recorded deaths...Although the violin spider's venom can have very serious consequences, the animal is reluctant to use its fangs. It will attack, however, if caught in clothing one has just put on or if rolled on in a bed." (Lifton, pages 213-214) Comments of mine: It is always wise to check clothing, especially in the "wilderness" before putting them on. I remember at least twice finding what did not look like friendly insects inside my clothes and shoes. I once learned from a person who loved the outdoors when I was on a camping trip about age 8 that I should always check out my shoes before putting them on by knocking my shoes against the ground to see if any bugs come out. I was also taught to always check out my sleeping bag before getting into it to sleep. I was also taught about spiders and snakes around and under trees and rocks that had fallen down. My outdoor living teacher told me to not be afraid, just be super careful. This type of carefulness is so important in life in that it involves a fear of awakening a natural defense mechanism in a creature that will only be awakened if aggravated. For example, if petting gently a cat, its claws or nails are not provoked; but, if teasing that cat, then its claws or nails get exposed and it may scratch you! This applies to animals and insects; they care not to harm anyone unless provoked to anger. The "Fear of the Lord" found in the Bible is like that: God will never, never, never be provoked to anger if we do good; but the proper "fear" of the Lord needs to be present in all humans if we do evil. Thankfully, God is gracious, merciful, purposeful, and loving in His correction. A detailed explanation of this is found in my book on "The Divine Nature" which can be ordered for $20.00 plus $3.00 postage and handling from Advanced Health Techniques, 3307 South College, Suite #200, Fort Collins, Colorado 80525.

 

"…A bright, crackling blaze warms not only the body but the spirit as well." (McDougall, page 67)

"How you pursue your food is as important as what you pursue. Although wild foods are freely available, they are not for free. People have a responsibility to give back their care and assistance, a sort of halfway farming. Gather plants in a sustainable way; for instance, collect leaves in ones and twos and from many widely scattered plants, rather than from one individual plant, so as not to impair plant growth. When gathering roots, try to gather after the plant has gone to seed, and if this is not possible plant seeds for every plant you dig up." (Mears, page 71)

Glossary of Terms Used in This Book

"aerobic…This describes organisms (microbes) or chains of bilochemical reactions that need the presence of free oxygen to be viable." (Maniguet, page 421)

"Annual plant: a plant that sprouts from seed, then grows, flowers, fruits, and dies all within one growing season." (Young, page XVII)

"Bannock…bread baked on a pan or a hot stone." (Lynn, page 2)

"Biennial plant: a plant that sprouts from seed and grows during one growing season, then flowers, fruits, and dies during the second growing season." (Young, page XVII)

"biv’ouac (biv’oo-ac or biv’wak)…to watch; to encamp in the open…a temporary encampment of soldiers in the open with or without shelter; hence, figuratively, a position or situation demanding extreme watchfulness." (Webster's Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged Encyclopedic Edition, page 189)

"Cache…hidden store of food or equipment." (Lynn, page 2)

"…heat units (or calories)..." (Angier, book 5, pages 156-157)

"Catkin: a spikelike, usually hanging cluster of flowers having small leaflike structures but no petals." (Young, page XVII)

"convection…The movement of a fluid due to a variation in temperature. For example, in the afternoon in summer, the ground, heated by the sun, sets off ascending thermal currents that form the base for cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds." (Maniguet, page 421)

"Damper…bread baked in hot ashes." (Lynn, page 2)

"endorphins (internal morphine)…Hormones secreted in minute quantities in the brain that act directly on specific centers and have a pain-killing, tranquilizing or sitmulating effect." (Maniguet, page 421-422)

"Foret: a small flower, especially one of the small flowers in a dense head of flowers." (Young, page XVIII)

"…ergot…a small, black, oblong growth caused by a poisonous fungus (ergot from rye is used in medicine as a powerful vasoconstrictor)." (Maniguet, page 241)

"Grommet…sewn or metallic eyelet in tent or tarp." (Lynn, page 2)

"Hardwood…wood from broad-leaved trees." (Lynn, page 2)

"homeostasis…The living organism’s preservation of various physiological constants: temperature, pH, glycemia, arterial pressure, oxygenation of the tissues, etc." (Maniguet, page 422)

 

 

"…hypothermia…a lowering of the internal body temperature." (McDougall, page 23)

 

"Latitude…marked by the horizontal lines parallel to the equator, can be determined in North America by observing the North Star…If we are halfway between the North Pole and Equator on the 45th parallel, we will therefore find upon sighting the North Star that it lies almost exactly at a 45 degree angle from us."

(Angier, book 4, page 156)

 

"Lean-to…tent or other shelter with a single, sloping roof and open front." (Lynn, page 2)

"…lee side…away from the prevailing winds." (Mears, page 28)

"...legumes are the bean bearing plants." (Merrill, page 275)

"…lichen…Hybrid plants that are half algae, half fungus…" (McDougall, page 100)

"Longitude…depicted by the vertical lines running from pole to pole on maps is represented either by degrees or by time, both reckoned from Greenwich, England." (Angier, book 4, page 156)

"Mosquito bar…shelter of loosely woven material for keeping out mosquitos." (Lynn, page 2)

"mycology…The study of fungi." (Mears, page 170)

"Noggin…drinking cup carved from a tree gnarl." (Lynn, page 2)

"osmotic…Osmotic pressure alone determines the exchange of water between the cells and the blood. This pressure is proportional to the concentration of electrolytes. The osmotic pressure of seawater, for example, is much higher than that of freshwater." (Maniguet, page 423)

"pH…This symbol expresses the acidity of a liquid according to its concentration in H+ (hydrogenions). A neutral solution has a pH of 7, an alkaline solution has a pH over 7 and an acid under 7. The pH of arterial blood is 7." (Maniguet, page 423)

"…poikilothermic—that is, ‘cold-blooded,’ with a body temperature that varies depending on their surroundings." (Maniguet, page 86)

"Poncho…rain covering consisting of a rectangular piece of waterproof material, with a hole in the middle for the head." (Lynn, page 2)

"Softwood…wood from evergreen trees." (Lynn, page 2)

"Squaw wood…dead branches still attached to the tree." (Lynn, page 2)

"survival, n. 1. A living beyond the life of or continuing longer than another person, thing, or event; an outliving; the act; state; or fact of surviving. 2. Something that survives, as a habit, usage, or belief remaining from ancient times." (Webster’s Dictionary, page 1,837)

"survive…(Fr. Survivre, to survive, from L. supervivere, to outlive; super, above, and vivere, to live.) 1. To outlive; to live beyond the life or existence of; to last longer than; as, the wife survived her husband. 2. To continue to live after or in spite of;; as, we survived the wreck." (Webster’s Dictionary, page 1,837)

"survivor, n. 1. One who or that which exists after the death of another or others, or after some event or time." (Webster’s Dictionary, page 1,837)

"Tarp or Tarpaulin…large, waterproof sheet." (Lynn, page 2)

"Tinders…in many ways the most important part of any fire, for they create the initial flame and enable it to grow." (Mears, page 46)

"total…from L, totus, the whole…1. Constituting the whole; complete in all its parts; entire; as, a total sum or amount. 2. Complete in degree; absolute; thorough…" (Webster’s Dictionary, page 1,928)

"vasoconstriction/vasodilation…The decrease or the increase in the diameter of a vessel through the action of the muscle fibers." (Maniguet, page 424)

"withe…from withig, willow, also, twig of a willow…1. A tough flexible branch or twig of willow, osier, etc., used in binding things…" (Webster’s Dictionary, page 2,101)

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Angier, Bradford. How To Stay Alive In The Woods. Macmillian Publishing Company: New York. First Edition, l962.

Angier, Bradford, Book 2. More Free-For-The Eating Wild Foods. Stackpole Books: Harrisburg, Pa. First Edition, 1969.

Angier, Bradford, Book 3. Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Stackpole Books:Harrisburg, Pa. First Edition, Thirteenth Printing, September, 1992.

Angier, Bradford, Book 4. Living Off The Country. Stackpole Books: Harrisburg, Pa. First Edition, Sixth Printing, 1966.

Angier, Bradford, Book 5. Home In Your Pack. Stackpole Books: Harrisburg, Pa. First Edition, 1965. Library Of Congress Catalog Card Number: 65-14416.

Booth, Ernest S., Ph.D., Professor of Biology, Walla Walla College. How To Know The Mammals. Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers: Dubuque, Iowa. First Edition, 1950.

Colby, C.B., and Bradford Angier. The Art and Science of Taking to the Woods. Collier Books: New York, New York. First Edition, 1971.

Colorado Mountain Club. Trail and Timberline. March, l996 issue, No. 915.

Desert Publications. Cold Weather Survival. Desert Publications: P.O. Box 1751, El Dorado, AR 71731. Second Printing, l991.

Eduardo, as told to Tim Kern. The Manual by Eduardo . Ordered through KHNC, 1-800-607-8255: Johnstown, Colorado. Second Edition.

Gibbons, Euell. Stalking The Wild Asparagus. David McKay Company, Inc.: New York, New York. First Edition, Ninth Printing, 1970. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 62-13703

Goodchild, Peter. Survival Skills of the North American Indians. Chicago Review Press: Chicago, IL. First Edition, l984.

Harrington, H.D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. The University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sixth paperbound printing, 1983.

Jamison, Richard L., compiled by. The Best of Woodsmoke: A Manual of Primitive Outdoor Skills. Horizon Publishers: Bountiful, Utah. First Printing, l982. Special Note: "Richard Jamison is a noted outdoor photographer and writer. He has produced a series of ten outdoor educational films which are used in schools throughout the nation and by other instructors. Richard received national recognition for his skill in primitive craftsmanship and knowledge of aboriginal skills when he worked as technical advisor and set designer on the film 'Windwalker.' He is the director of Anasazi Expeditions and editor and publisher of Woodsmoke Journal." (Jamison, page 7)

Jamison, Richard and Linda, compiled by. Woodsmoke: Collected Writings on Ancient Living Skills. Menasha Ridge Press: Birmingham, Alabama. First Edition, l994.

Lifton, Bernice. Bug Busters. Avery Publishing Group, Inc.: Garden City Park, New York. First Edition, l991.

Lynn, Gordon. The Big Golden Book Of Camping And Camp Crafts. Golden Press: New York, New York. First Edition, Seventh Printing, 1964.

McDougall, Len. Practical Outdoor Survival, A Modern Approach. Lyons And Burford, Publishers: New York, New York. First Edition, 1992. ISBN=1-55821-228-0

McPherson, John and Geri. "Naked into the Wilderness": Primitive Wilderness Living and Survival Skills. Prairie Wolf: P. O. Box 96, Randolph, KS 66554. Second Printing, June 1994.

Maniguet, Xavier. Survival: How To Prevail In Hostile Environments. Facts On File, Inc.: 460 Park Avenue South, New York, New York 10016. First Edition, 1994. ISBN=0-8160-2518-5

Mears, Raymond. The Outdoor Survival Handbook. St. Martin’s Press: 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. First Printing, 1992. ISBN=0-312-09359-4

Merrill, Bill. The Survival Handbook. ARCO Publishing Company, Inc.: New York, N.Y. First Edition, 1974.

Paladin Press. Never Say Die. Paladin Press: Boulder, Colorado. First Edition, 1979.

Public Service Company of Colorado, Energy Update, July of 1999.

Turbak, Gary. "Vegetables From The Sea". The Rotarian, December, 1996.

Young, Kay. Wild Seasons: Gathering and Cooking wild Plants of the Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, Nebraska. First Edition, 1993.

Webster's Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged Encyclopedic Edition. Publishers International Press: New York. Copyright, l977)

Phones and Address That May Be Important to You

Collected Writings and/or Videos on Living Skills:

Desert Publications

P.O. Box 1751

El Dorado, AR 71731

Phone Number: 1-501-862-2077

 

Paladin Enterprises, Inc.

P.O. Box 1307

Boulder, Colorado 80306

Phone Number: 1-303-443-7250

 

Patrick Productions

3033 Puckett Road, #30

Kansas City, Kansas 66103

 

Prairie Wolf

P.O. Box 96

Randolph, Kansas 66554

Phone: 1-800-258-1232

 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Superintendent

Estes Park, Colorado 80517

Phone Number: 1-970-627-3471

 

Society of Primitive Technology

P.O. Box 3226

Flagstaff, AZ 86003

Phone Number: 1-602-779-6000

 

Woodsmoke Woodsmoke

P.O. Box 1384 Richard Jamison, Box 508

Sandy, Utah 84091 & Springdale, Ut 84767

Phone Number: 1-801-722-2445

Classes and/or Workshops and/or Trips on Outdoor Living:

American Camping Association

5000 State Road 67 North

Martinsville, IN 46151

 

Boss

P.O. Box 1590

Boulder, Colorado 80306

Phone Number: 1-800-335-7404 and 1-303-444-9779

 

Boulder Outdoor Survival School

P.O. Box 3226, Flagstaff, AZ 86003

Phone Number: 1-520-779-6000

 

Colorado Mountain Club

Phone Number: 1-303-279-3080

 

Colorado Travel and Tourism

Phone Number: 1-800-COLORADO

 

Mycological Society of America

Harvard University Herbaria

22 Divinity Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02138

 

Outward Bound

National Office

384 Field Point Road

Greenwich, CT 06830

 

Primitive Industries Workshops

40 East 2nd St.,

Moorestown, NJ 08057

Phone Number: 1-609-234-3286

 

Rocky Mountain National Park's Visitor Center Headquarters

1-970-586-1206

 

Rocky Mountain Nature Association

Estes Park, Co. 80517

Phone Number: 1-970-586-1258

Seminar Coordinator is Kris Marske

 

Society of Primitive Technology

P.O. Box 3226

Flagstaff, AZ 86003

Phone Number: 1-602-779-6000

 

Woodsmoke

P.O. Box 1384

Sandy, Utah 84091

Magazines on Outdoor Living:

Backwoods House Magazine

Phone Number: 1-800-835-2418

 

Society of Primitive Technology

P.O. Box 3226

Flagstaff, AZ 86003

Phone Number: 1-602-779-6000

Bulletin of Primitive Technology

Memberships Available:

Colorado Mountain Club

Phone Number: 1-303-279-3080

 

Rocky Mountain Nature Association

Estes Park, Co. 80517

Phone Number: 1-970-586-1258

 

Society of Primitive Technology

P.O. Box 3226

Flagstaff, AZ 86003

Phone Number: 1-602-779-6000

Dressing Up For Survival (Boots, Brand Name Clothing, Etc.):

The Sportsman’s Guide

411 Farwell Avenue

So. St. Paul, MN 55075-0239

Phone: 1-800-888-3006

Free catalogue is being offered as of 4-11-99

www.sportsmansguide.com

Hunting Equipment:

Advanced Hunting Equipment, Inc.

P.O. Box 1277

Cumming, GA 30130

Phone: 1-800-233-0459

Hunting Processing:

Reliable 'Big Game' Processing

919 N. U.S. Hwy. 287

Fort Collins, Colorado

1-970-224-4881

Home Addresses on the Computer's E-Mail And Internet:

WEB-SITE ADDRESS For Author, Ronald Alan Duskis:

http://www.hopebeyond.com

E-MAIL ADDRESS For Author:  webmaster@hopebeyond.com

Copyright, 2000 by Ronald Alan Duskis, 430 West Tenth Street, G, Loveland, Colorado 80537.  Phone:  (970) 622-8275.  Email:  mailto:webmaster@hopebeyond.com

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